Citation Information :
Chandrasekhar SN, Mallikarjun SB, Salim HP. Comparative Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Probiotics SK12 and SM18: An In Vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2020; 13 (6):611-616.
Aim: To assess the antimicrobial activity of probiotics SK12 and SM18 on Streptococcus mutans and also to compare the antimicrobial activity of SK12 and SM18.
Materials and methods: Synthetic strains of Streptococcus mutans were used to study the antimicrobial activity of probiotics SK12 and SM18 using various tests such as disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). In disk diffusion, the zone of inhibition was measured to assess the antimicrobial activity. Chlorhexidine was used as a control for this test. The MIC and MBC were assessed at different dilutions of the probiotic sample (100 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, 25 mg/mL, 12.5 mg/mL, 6.25 mg/mL, 3.12 mg/mL, 1.6 mg/mL, 0.8 mg/mL, 0.4 mg/mL, and 0.2 mg/mL).
Result: SM18 demonstrated 20 mm of zone of inhibition, whereas SK12 demonstrated 15 mm showing a less antibacterial activity in comparison to SM18. SM18 was found to be bactericidal and effective at a minimum concentration of 0.8 mg/mL, whereas SK12 was bactericidal and effective at a minimum concentration of 1.6 mg/mL.
Conclusion: Probiotics demonstrate antibacterial activity against cariogenic microflora. SM is 18 having a better antibacterial activity at lower concentrations than SK12 in reducing cariogenic microorganisms. Clinical significance: BLIS K12 and M18 both demonstrated an antibacterial effect on Streptococcus mutans, wherein the use of probiotic in caries prevention is found to be limited. Hence, it is suggestive to reap the bacterial effects of BLIS K12 and M18 in caries prevention.
Macdonald KW. The role of Streptococcus salivarius as a modulator of homeostasis in the oral cavity. Electron Thesis Diss Repos 2015(May):1–94.
Horz H-P, Meinelt A, Houben B, et al. Distribution and persistence of probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 in the human oral cavity as determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2007;22(2):126–130. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-302X.2007.00334.x.
Favier CF, Vaughan EE, De Vos WM, et al. Molecular monitoring of succession of bacterial communities in human neonates. Appl Environ Microbiol 2002;68(1):219–226. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.68.1.219-226.2002.
Lee JA, Lee NH, Lee SW, et al. Molecular analysis of colonized bacteria in a human newborn infant gut. J Microbiol 2005;43(4):345–353. DOI: 10.1007/s12275-014-4074-4.
Carlsson J, Grahnén H, Jonsson G, et al. Early establishment of Streptococcus salivarius in the mouths of infants. J Dent Res 1970;49(2):415–418. DOI: 10.1177/00220345700490023601.
Wescombe PA, Upton M, Dierksen KP, et al. Production of the lantibiotic salivaricin A and its variants by oral streptococci and use of a specific induction assay to detect their presence in human saliva. Appl Environ Microbiol 2006;72(2):1459–1466. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.72.2.1459-1466.2006.
Burton JP, Wescombe PA, Moore CJ, et al. Safety assessment of the oral cavity probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12. Appl Environ Microbiol 2006;72(4):3050–3053. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.72.4.3050-3053.2006.
Wescombe PA, Burton JP, Cadieux PA, et al. Megaplasmids encode differing combinations of lantibiotics in Streptococcus salivarius. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2006;90(3):269–280. DOI: 10.1007/s10482-006-9081-y.
Wescombe PA, Heng NCK, Burton JP, et al. Something old and something new: an update on the amazing repertoire of bacteriocins produced by Streptococcus salivarius. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2010;2(1):37–45. DOI: 10.1007/s12602-009-9026-7.
Krishnappa S, Srinath S, Bhardwaj P, et al. Review article role of probiotics in prevention of dental caries: a review. J Adv Med Dent Sci 2013;1(2):86–91.
Stowik TA, Contribution of Probiotics Streptococcus salivarius Strains K12 and M18 to Oral Health in Humans: A Review Contribution of Probiotics Streptococcus salivarius Strains K12 and M18 to Oral Health in Humans: 2016.
Burton JP, Chilcott CN, Wescombe PA, et al. Extended safety data for the oral cavity probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2010;2(3):135–144. DOI: 10.1007/s12602-010-9045-4.
Burton JP, Wescombe PA, Macklaim JM, et al. Persistence of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 is dose dependent and megaplasmid transfer can augment their bacteriocin production and adhesion characteristics. PLoS ONE 2013;8(6):e65991. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065991.
Thurnheer T, van der Ploeg JR, Giertsen E, et al. Effects of Streptococcus mutans gtfC deficiency on mixed oral biofilms in vitro. Caries Res 2006;40(2):163–171. DOI: 10.1159/000091065.
Anilkumar K, Monisha ALS. Role of friendly bacteria in oral health - a short review. Oral Health Prev Dent 2012;10(1):3–8.
Ten Cate JM. Novel anticaries and remineralizing agents. J Dent Res 2012;91(9):813–815. DOI: 10.1177/0022034512455032.
Laleman I, Detailleur V, Slot DE, et al. Probiotics reduce mutans streptococci counts in humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Oral Investig 2014;18(6):1539–1552. DOI: 10.1007/s00784-014-1228-z.
Fejerskov O. Changing paradigms in concepts on dental caries: consequences for oral health care. Caries Res 2004;38(3):182–191. DOI: 10.1159/000077753.
Bhardwaj P, Krishnappa S. Various approaches for prevention of dental caries with emphasis on probiotics: a review. IOSR J Dent Med Sci 2014;13(2):62–67. DOI: 10.9790/0853-13216267.
Chen F, Wang D. Novel technologies for the prevention and treatment of dental caries: a patent survey. Expert Opin Ther Pat 2010;20(5):681–694. DOI: 10.1517/13543771003720491.
Knuuttila MLE, Mäkinen KK. Effect of xylitol on the growth and metabolism of Streptococcus mutans. Caries Res 1975;9(3):177–189. DOI: 10.1159/000260156.
Franken HCM. Effect of fluoride growth and acid production by Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque. Infect Immun 1984;45(2):356–359. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.45.2.356-359.1984.
Stamatova I, Meurman JH. Probiotics: health benefits in the mouth. Am J Dent 2009;22(6):329–338.
Collado MC, Meriluoto J, Salminen S. Measurement of aggregation properties between probiotics and pathogens: in vitro evaluation of different methods. J Microbiol Methods 2007;71(1):71–74. DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2007.07.005.
Hegarty JW, Guinane CM, Ross RP, et al. Bacteriocin production: a relatively unharnessed probiotic trait? F1000 Res 2016;5:2587. DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.9615.1.
Dobson A, Cotter PD, Ross RP, et al. Bacteriocin production: a probiotic trait? Appl Environ Microbiol 2012;78(1):1–6. DOI: 10.1128/AEM. 05576-11.
Di Pierro F, Adami T, Rapacioli G, et al. Clinical evaluation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 in the prevention of recurrent pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes in adults. Expert Opin Biol Ther 2013;13(3):339–343. DOI: 10.1517/14712598.2013.758711.
Cosseau C, Devine DA, Dullaghan E, et al. The commensal Streptococcus salivarius K12 downregulates the innate immune responses of human epithelial cells and promotes host-microbe homeostasis. Infect Immun 2008;76(9):4163–4175. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00188-08.
Kianoush N, Adler CJ, Nguyen K-AT, et al. Bacterial profile of dentine caries and the impact of pH on bacterial population diversity. PLoS ONE 2014;9(3):e92940. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092940.
Di Pierro F, Zanvit A, Nobili P, et al. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study. Clin Cosmet Investig Dent 2015;7:107–113. DOI: 10.2147/CCIDE. S93066.