International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 13 , ISSUE 1 ( January-February, 2020 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Microtensile Bond Strength of Composite Resin Following the Use of Bromelain and Papain as Deproteinizing Agents on Etched Dentin: An In Vitro Study

Swapna V Devarasanahalli, Ranjini M Aswathanarayana, Ashwath H Venkateswara, Roopa R Nadig

Keywords : Adhesion, Bromelain, Papain

Citation Information : Devarasanahalli SV, Aswathanarayana RM, Venkateswara AH, Nadig RR. Microtensile Bond Strength of Composite Resin Following the Use of Bromelain and Papain as Deproteinizing Agents on Etched Dentin: An In Vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2020; 13 (1):43-47.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1743

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 21-07-2020

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2020; The Author(s).


Aim and objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the deproteinizing effect of sodium hypochlorite, bromelain, and papain on microtensile bond strength of composite resin to etched dentin. Materials and methods: Eighty freshly extracted permanent molars were wet grounded into a flat surface using a diamond disk to expose the superficial dentinal surface. Teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds and rinsed with water and blot dried. Teeth were divided into four groups (n = 20) based on the method of dentin deproteinization. Group I: only etching; group II: deproteinized with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite for 1 minute; group III: deproteinized with 8% bromelain enzyme for 1 minute; and group IV: deproteinized with 8% papain enzyme for 1 minute. All the samples were washed off with distilled water to remove deproteinizing agents. Sample surfaces were blot dried and bonding of the dentin surface was performed and restored with light cure bulk fill composite. Samples were stored in distilled water (37°C/24 hours) and thermocycled. Then, the teeth were longitudinally sectioned and individually fixed to a sectioning block using acrylic resin. The block was mounted on hard tissue microtome and sectioned to get one to three slabs of 1 mm thick sections. The beam was then attached to a custom-made jig using screws subjected to the Instron universal testing machine. A tensile load was applied at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute until the beam fractured. Results: Higher mean bond strength was recorded in group IV followed by group III, group II, and group I, respectively. Group III presented a statistically significant highest mean score compared to other study groups with group I and group II (p < 0.001), followed by group IV having significantly higher mean score compared to group I and group II (p < 0.001) and finally a significant difference was observed between group II and group I (p < 0.001). However, the mean microtensile bond strength score did not differ significantly between group III and group IV (p = 0.20). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this present in vitro study, the following conclusions were drawn. The microtensile bond strength of dentine tested in various deproteinizing agents is as follows: 8% bromelain > 8% papain > 5.25% NaOCl > control group. Naturally occurring deproteinizing agents, such as bromelain and papain, used in this study have resulted in greater bond strength values when compared to that of traditionally used chemical agent such as NaOCl.

PDF Share
  1. Van Meerbeek B, Vargas M, Inoue S, et al. Adhesives and cements to promote preservation dentistry. Oper Dent 2001;6:119–144.
  2. Pashley DH, Agee KA, Carvalho RM, et al. Effects of water and water-free polar solvents on the tensile properties of demineralized dentin. Dent Mater 2003;19(5):347–352. DOI: 10.1016/s0109-5641(02)00065-9.
  3. Reis A, Pellizzaro A, Dal-Bianco K, et al. Impact of adhesive application to wet and dry dentin on long-term resin-dentin bond strengths. Oper Dent 2007;32(4):380–387. DOI: 10.2341/06-107.
  4. Van Meerbeek B, De Munck J, Yoshida Y, et al. Buonocore memorial lecture. Adhesion to enamel and dentin: Current status and future challenges. Oper Dent 2003;28(3):215–235.
  5. Almahdy A, Koller G, Sauro S, et al. Effects of MMP inhibitors incorporated within dental adhesives. J Dent Res 2012;91(6):605–611. DOI: 10.1177/0022034512446339.
  6. Chauhan K, Basavanna RS, Shivanna V. Effect of bromelain enzyme for dentin deproteinization on bond strength of adhesive system. JCD 2015;18(5):360–363. DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.164029.
  7. Dayem RN, Tameesh MA. A new concept in hybridization: bromelain enzyme for deproteinizing dentin before application of adhesive system. Contemp Clin Dent 2013;4(4):421–426. DOI: 10.4103/0976-237X.123015.
  8. Komori PCP, Pashley DH, Tjäderhane L, et al. Effect of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate on the bond strength to normal versus caries-affected dentin. Oper Dent 2009;34(2):157–165. DOI: 10.2341/08-55.
  9. Silva EM, Duarte PB, Poskus LT, et al. Nanoleakage and microshear bond strength in deproteinized human dentin. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2007;81(2):336–342. DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.30670.
  10. Lai SCN, Mak YF, Cheung GSP, et al. Reversal of compromised bonding to oxidized etched dentin. J Dent Res 2001;80(10):1919–1924. DOI: 10.1177/00220345010800101101.
  11. Pavan R, Jain S, Shradhha, et al. Properties and therapeutic application of bromelain: a review. Biotechnol Res Int 2012;2012::976203. DOI: 10.1155/2012/976203.
  12. Ahmed AA, Garcia-Godoyc F, Kunzelmann KH. Self-liminting caries therapy with proteolytic agents. Am J Dent 2008;21(5):303–312.
  13. Bertassoni LE, Marshall GW. Papain-gel degrades intact nonmineralized type I collagen fibrils. Scanning 2009;31(6):253–258. DOI: 10.1002/sca.20171.
  14. Pithon MM, Ferraz CS, GDC Oliveira, et al. Effect of different concentrations of papain gel on orthodontic bracket bonding. Prog Orthod 2013;14(1):22. DOI: 10.1186/2196-1042-14-22.
  15. Pashley DH, Tao L, Boyd L, et al. Scanning electronmicroscopy of the substructure of smear layers inhuman dentine. Arch Oral Biol 1988;33(4):265–270. DOI: 10.1016/0003-9969(88)90188-4.
  16. Talungchit S, Jessop JL, Cobb DS, et al. Ethanol-wet bonding and chlorhexidine improve resin-dentin bond durability: quantitative analysisusing Raman spectroscopy. J Adhes Dent 2014;16(5):441–450. DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a32695.
  17. Nakabayashi N, Kojima K, Masuhara E. The promotion ofadhesion by the infiltration of monomers into toothsubstrates. J Biomed Mater Res 1982;16(3):265–273. DOI: 10.1002/jbm.820160307.
  18. Suzuki T, Finger WJ. Dentin adhesives: site of dentin vs. bonding of composite resins. Dent Mater 1988;4(6):378–379. DOI: 10.1016/S0109-5641(88)80053-8.
  19. Zhang L, Wang DY, Fan J, et al. Stability of bonds made to superficial vs. deep dentin, before and after thermo cycling. Dent Mater 2014;30(11):1245–1251. DOI: 10.1016/
  20. Wang Y, Spencer P. Hybridization efficiency of the adhesive/dentin interface with wet bonding. J Dent Res 2003;82(2):141–145. DOI: 10.1177/154405910308200213.
  21. Sakae T, Mishima H, Kozawa Y. Changes in bovine dentin mineral with sodium hypochlorite treatment. J Dent Res 1988;67(9):1229–1234. DOI: 10.1177/00220345880670091601.
  22. Hale LP, Green PK, Trinh CT, et al. Proteinase activity and stability of natural bromelain preparations. Int Immunopharmacol 2005;5(4):783–793. DOI: 10.1016/j.intimp.2004.12.007.
  23. Jonathan R, Lakshminarayanan L. Comparison of shear bond strength of fifth generation dentin bonding agents: in vitro study. J Cons Dent 2001;4:122–129.
  24. de Britto Pereira Garcia Duarte P, Moreira da Silva E. Nanoleakage phenomenon on deproteinized human dentin. J Appl Oral Sci 2007;15(4):285–291. DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572007000400009.
  25. Ilie N, Bucuta S, Draenert M. Bulk-fill resin-based composites: an in vitro assessment of their mechanical performance. Oper Dent 2013;38(6):618–625. DOI: 10.2341/12-395-L.
  26. Czasch P, Ilie N. In vitro comparison of mechanical properties and degreeof cure of bulk fill composites. Clin Oral Investig 2013;17(1):227–235. DOI: 10.1007/s00784-012-0702-8.
  27. Inai N, Kanemura N, Tagami J, et al. Marshall GW. Adhesion between collagen depleted dentin and dentin adhesives. Am J Dent 1998;11(3):123–127.
  28. Rueggeberg FA, Margeson DH. The effect of oxygen inhibition on an unfilled/filled composite system. J Dent Res 1990;69(10):1652–1658. DOI: 10.1177/00220345900690100501.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.