Citation Information :
Duraisamy V, Pragasam AX, Vasavaih SK, John JB. Maternal Knowledge Regarding Feeding Practices and its Effect on Occlusion of Primary Dentition in Children: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2020; 13 (1):31-34.
Background: Infant feeding practices are an important factor influencing malocclusion in deciduous dentition, which can have long-lasting negative outcomes on oral health-related quality of life. Hence, knowledge, attitudes and cultural practices of mothers are vital in prevention of this.
Objective: The present study was carried out to assess the mother\'s knowledge about feeding practices and its influence on primary dentition.
Materials and methods: The current study was a cross-sectional study of 187 mothers of 3- to 5-year-old children identified with malocclusion, conducted in the pedodontics department of tertiary care teaching dental hospital in South India.
Results: Majority of the mothers were graduates (31.6%) or undergraduates or postgraduates (42.8%). The duration of breastfeeding was 0–3 months in 9.1%, 3–6 months in 23%, 6–12 months in 30.5%, and >12 months in 37.5%. Bottle-feeding was reported by 21.4%. Only 52.4% of the mothers were aware about caries, and 66.2% were aware of malocclusion. The prevalence of malocclusion was 63.6% in study population, and the prevalence of caries was 30.5%. The most common type of malocclusion was overjet seen in 20.9% of study subjects. The proportion of children with crowding, open bite, and crossbite was 17.1, 15, and 10.7%, respectively. There was a gradually increasing trend in malocclusion awareness with increasing educational status of the mother which was statistically not significant (p value = 0.119). The proportion of malocclusion was highest in children who received breastfeeding between 3 months and 6 months and was highest (69.8%) in children who received bottle-feeding for more than 12 months. None of the factors had shown a statistically significant association with malocclusion in study population.
Conclusion: The prevalence of malocclusion is high in children, and mothers’ awareness regarding malocclusion is poor.
Clinical significance: There is a need to educate mothers about proper feeding practices to prevent dental malocclusion.
Palmer B. The influence of breastfeeding on the development of the oral cavity: A commentary. J Hum Lact 1998;14(2):93–98. DOI: 10.1177/089033449801400203.
Butte NF, Lopez-Alarcon MG, Garza C. Nutrient adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding for the term infant during the first six months of life. 2002.
Kramer MS, Kakuma R. Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;(8):Cd003517. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003517.pub2.
Singh GD. On growth and treatment: The spatial matrix hypothesis. Craniofacial Growth Series 2004;41:197–239.
Aznar T, Galan AF, Marin I, et al. Dental arch diameters and relationships to oral habits. Angle Orthod 2006;76(3):441–445. DOI: 10.1043/0003-3219(2006)076[0441:DADART]2.0.CO;2.
Vázquez-Nava F, Quezada-Castillo JA, Oviedo-Treviño S, et al. Association between allergic rhinitis, bottle feeding, non-nutritive sucking habits, and malocclusion in the primary dentition. Arch Dis Child 2006;91(10):836–840. DOI: 10.1136/adc.2005.088484.
Corruccini RS, Whitley LD. Occlusal variation in a rural kentucky community. Am J Orthod 1981;79(3):250–262. DOI: 10.1016/0002-9416(81)90073-7.
Davis DW, Bell PA. Infant feeding practices and occlusal outcomes: a longitudinal study. J Can Dent Assoc 1991;57(7):593–594.
Hermont AP, Martins CC, Zina LG, et al. Breastfeeding, bottle feeding practices and malocclusion in the primary dentition: a systematic review of cohort studies. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2015;12(3):3133–3151. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph120303133.
Kurol J, Berglund L. Longitudinal study and cost-benefit analysis of the effect of early treatment of posterior cross-bites in the primary dentition. Eur J Orthod 1992;14(3):173–179. DOI: 10.1093/ejo/14.3.173.
Castillo Bueno MD. [Pacifier use in early infancy in relation to breast feeding, sudden infant death syndrome and poor dental occlusion]. Enferm Clin 2008;18(4):223–225. DOI: 10.1016/s1130-8621(08)72202-2.
Charchut SW, Allred EN, Needleman HL. The effects of infant feeding patterns on the occlusion of the primary dentition. J Dent Child (Chic) 2003;70(3):197–203.
Simpson WJ, Cheung DK. Developing infant occlusion, related feeding methods and oral habits. Part I: methodology and results at 4 and 8 months. Dent J 1976;42(3):124–132.
Dimberg L, Arnrup K, Bondemark L. The impact of malocclusion on the quality of life among children and adolescents: a systematic review of quantitative studies. Eur J Orthod 2015;37(3):238–247. DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cju046.
Chhabra N, Chhabra A. Parental knowledge, attitudes and cultural beliefs regarding oral health and dental care of preschool children in an Indian population: a quantitative study. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2012;13(2):76–82. DOI: 10.1007/bf03262848.
Salone LR, Vann WF Jr, Dee DL. Breastfeeding: an overview of oral and general health benefits. J Am Dent Assoc 2013;144(2):143–151. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2013.0093.
Exclusive Breastfeeding for Six Months Best for Babies Everywhere 2011 [Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2011/breastfeeding_20110115/en/.
Lopez Del Valle LM, Singh GD, Feliciano N, et al. Associations between a history of breast feeding, malocclusion and parafunctional habits in Puerto Rican children. P R Health Sci J 2006;25(1):31–34.
Agarwal SS, Nehra K, Sharma M, et al. Association between breastfeeding duration, non-nutritive sucking habits and dental arch dimensions in deciduous dentition: a cross-sectional study. Prog Orthod 2014;15(1):59. DOI: 10.1186/s40510-014-0059-4.
Ganesh M, Tandon S, Sajida B. Prolonged feeding practice and its effects on developing dentition. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2005;23(3):141. DOI: 10.4103/0970-4388.16888.
Peres KG, De Oliveira Latorre Mdo R, Sheiham A, et al. Social and biological early life influences on the prevalence of open bite in Brazilian 6-year-olds. Int J Paediatr Dent 2007;17(1):41–49. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2006.00793.x.
Caramez da Silva F, Justo Giugliani ER, Capsi Pires S. Duration of breastfeeding and distoclusion in the deciduous dentition. Breastfeed Med 2012;7(6):464–468. DOI: 10.1089/bfm.2011.0123.
Ogaard BLE, Lindsten R. The effect of sucking habits, cohort, sex, intercanine arch widths, and breast or bottle feeding on posterior crossbite in Norwegian and Swedish 3-year-old children. Amer J Orthod Dent Orthop 1994;106(2):161–166. DOI: 10.1016/S0889-5406(94)70034-6.
Kobayashi HM, Scavone H Jr, Ferreira RI. Relationship between breast feeding duration and prevalence of posterior crossbite in the deciduous dentition. Amer J Orthod Dent Orthop 2010;137(1):54–58. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2007.12.033.
American Academy on Pediatric Dentistry, American Academy of Pediatrics. Policy on early childhood caries (ECC): classifications, consequences, and preventive strategies. Pediatr Dent 2008;30:40–43.