International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 13 , ISSUE 1 ( January-February, 2020 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Effect of Cranberry Extract on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus: An In Vitro Study

Richa Singhal, Pratibha Patil, Mahantesh Siddibhavi, Anil V Ankola, Roopali Sankeshwari, Vaibhav Kumar

Keywords : Cranberry, Minimum bactericidal concentration, Minimum inhibitory concentration

Citation Information : Singhal R, Patil P, Siddibhavi M, Ankola AV, Sankeshwari R, Kumar V. Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Effect of Cranberry Extract on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus: An In Vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2020; 13 (1):11-15.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1707

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 25-10-2015

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2020; The Author(s).


Background: Nature has been a source of medicinal treatments since millennia and plant-based systems continue to play an essential role. Aim: To study the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effect of cranberry on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and methods: The ethanolic extract of cranberry was tested against standard MTCC strains of S. mutans (MTCC 25175) and L. acidophilus (MTCC 8129) for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The time kill assay was performed to check the time-dependent bactericidal effect of the cranberry extract on microorganisms. Percentage of cell adhesion and biofilm inhibition of the dental microorganism at various doses of cranberry extract was measured by a spectrophotometer and biofilm morphology characteristics were observed under scanning electron microscopy. All the tests were carried out in triplicates. Data were computed in the SPSS software and mean/SD was determined. The results are presented in a descriptive manner; Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Friedman's test were applied for comparative evaluation of the groups. p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed that MICs of cranberry extract against S. mutans and L. acidophilus are 12.5 mg/dL and 6.125 mg/dL, respectively, and MBCs are 25 mg/dL and 12.5 mg/dL, respectively. A significant decrease in the biofilm formation and cell adhesion of microorganisms at MIC (50%) and MBC (70%) was observed as compared to control as observed under a spectrophotometer and a scanning electron microscope. Conclusion: This study has identified bactericidal, bacteriostatic, and antibiofilm effects of cranberry extract against S. mutans and L. acidophilus in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner.

PDF Share
  1. Chandki R, Banthia P, Banthia R. Biofilms: a microbial home. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2011;15(2):111. DOI: 10.4103/0972-124X.84377.
  2. Lang NP, Mombelli A, Attstrom R. Oral Biofilms and Calculus. In: Lindhe J, Lang NP, Karring T, ed. Clinical Periodontology and Implant Dentistry, 5th ed., Oxford: Blackwell-Munksgaard; 2008. pp. 183–267.
  3. Axelsson P, Albandar JM, Rams TE. Prevention and control of periodontal diseases in developing and industrialized nations. Periodontol 2000 2002;29:235–246. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0757.2002.290112.x.
  4. Gunsolley JC. A meta-analysis of six-month studies of antiplaque and antigingivitis agents. J Am Dent Assoc 2006;137(12):1649–1657. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2006.0110.
  5. Moshrefi A. Chlorhexidine. J West Soc Periodontol Periodontal Abstr 2002;50(Supp1):5–9.
  6. Santos A. Evidence based control of plaque and gingivitis. J Clin Periodontol 2003;30(Suppl 5):13–16. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-051X.30.s5.5.x.
  7. Pizzo G, Cara ML, Licata ME, et al. The effects of an essential oil and an amine fluoride/stannous fluoride mouthrinse on supragingival plaque regrowth. J Periodontol 2008;79(7):1177–1183. DOI: 10.1902/jop.2008.070583.
  8. Kaviya Srinidhi A. Cranberry and its antibacterial activity - A review. J Pharm Sci Res 6(1 2014; 41–44.
  9. Cowan MM. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 1999;12(4):564–582. DOI: 10.1128/CMR.12.4.564.
  10. Mbata TI, Debiao LU, Saikia A. Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis) on Listeria monocytogenes. Afr J Biotechnol 2008;7(10):1571–1573.
  11. NCCLS. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Approved Standard M7-A5: Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically, 5th ed., 2000. pp. 4–9.
  12. Cruishank R, Duguid JP, Marmion BP, et al. Medical microbiology. In: The Practice of Medical Microbiology, 12th ed., London, UK: Churchill Livingstone; 1975.
  13. Li M-Y, Huang R-J, Zhou X-D, et al. Role of sortase in Streptococcus mutans under the effect of nicotine. Int J Oral Sci 2013;5(Suppl 4):206–211. DOI: 10.1038/ijos.2013.86.
  14. Assaf D, Steinberg D, Shemesh M. Lactose triggers biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. Int Dairy J 2015;42:51–57. DOI: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2014.10.008.
  15. Bitoun JP, Liao S, Xie GG, et al. Deficiency of BrpB causes major defects in cell division, stress responses and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. Microbiology 2014;160(Suppl 1):67–78. DOI: 10.1099/mic.0.072884-0.
  16. Jongsma MA, van der Mei HC, Atema-Smit J, et al. In vivo biofilm formation on stainless steel bonded retainers during different oral health-care regimens. Int J Oral Sci 2015;7(Supp 1):42–48. DOI: 10.1038/ijos.2014.69.
  17. Roberts AP, Mullany P. Oral biofilms: a reservoir of transferable, bacterial, antimicrobial resistance. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2010;8(12):1441–1450. DOI: 10.1586/eri.10.106.
  18. Teitelbaum AP, Czlusniak GD. Control of Dental Biofilm and Oral Health Maintenance in Patients with Down Syndrome.
  19. Pandey KB, Rizvi SI. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2009;2(5):270–278. DOI: 10.4161/oxim.2.5.9498.
  20. Daglia M. Polyphenols as antimicrobial agents. Curr Opin Biotechnol 2012;23(2):174–181. DOI: 10.1016/j.copbio.2011.08.007.
  21. Sethi R, Govila V. Inhibitory effect of cranberry juice on the colonization of Streptococci species: An in vitro study. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2011;15(1):46. DOI: 10.4103/0972-124X.82271.
  22. Neto CC, Penndorf KA, Feldman M, et al. Characterization of non-dialyzable constituents from cranberry juice that inhibit adhesion, co-aggregation and biofilm formation by oral bacteria. Food Funct 2017;8(5):1955–1965. DOI: 10.1039/C7FO00109F.
  23. Duarte S, Gregoire S, Singh AP, et al. Inhibitory effects of cranberry polyphenols on formation and acidogenicity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2006;257(1):50–56. DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2006.00147.x.
  24. Yamanaka A, Kimizuka R, Kato T, et al. Inhibitory effects of cranberry juice on attachment of oral streptococci and biofilm formation. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2004;19(3):150–154. DOI: 10.1111/j.0902-0055.2004.00130.x.
  25. Elworthy A, Greenman J, Doherty FM, et al. The substantivity of a number of oral hygiene products determined by the duration of effects on salivary bacteria. J Periodontol 1996;67(6):572–576. DOI: 10.1902/jop.1996.67.6.572.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.