International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 12 , ISSUE 6 ( November-December, 2019 ) > List of Articles


Evaluation of CRAFT as a Tool for Caries Risk Assessment in 3- to 6-year-old Children and its Validation against Alban's Test: A Pilot Study

Jagruti H Thakur, HN Subhadra

Citation Information : Thakur JH, Subhadra H. Evaluation of CRAFT as a Tool for Caries Risk Assessment in 3- to 6-year-old Children and its Validation against Alban's Test: A Pilot Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2019; 12 (6):538-542.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1698

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 24-11-2020

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2019; The Author(s).


Introduction: Dental caries is a multifactorial disease and a dynamic process that can be prevented and reversed during the early stage. Risk assessment is an important step in decision-making and treatment planning. There are no valid tools available for the Indian population. Caries risk assessment for treatment (CRAFT) is a chairside tool for caries risk assessment and management. Valid, reliable, economical, and chairside caries risk assessment tool is the need of the hour for general and pediatric dentists. Aim: To evaluate CRAFT as a tool for caries risk prediction among 3-years to 6-years-old children and to validate it against Alban test. Materials and methods: A pilot study was conducted, including forty 3-years to 6-years-old children. Salivary samples were collected and inoculated on B.C.G.-Dextrose Agar. Caries activity was assessed using Alban test. Their parents/guardians completed the CRAFT assessment in entirety. Results: The data were tabulated and subjected to suitable statistical analysis. High positive correlation between CRAFT scores and Alban's test (Spearman's Rho = 0.874) was found. Conclusion: CRAFT scores were highly correlated with Alban scores in 3- to 6-year-old children. CRAFT could be successfully employed as a reliable, economical, chairside, and clinically feasible risk assessment tool with further research on a larger sample size. Clinical significance: CRAFT can provide a framework for the clinician for preventive care and enhance patient–participation for CRA.

PDF Share
  1. Kassebaum NJ, Smith AG, Bernabé E, et al. GBD 2015 Oral Health Collaborators. Global, regional, and national prevalence, incidence, and disability-adjusted life years for oral conditions for 195 countries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the global burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. J Dental Res 2017;96(4):380–387. DOI: 10.1177/0022034517693566.
  2. Pitts NB. Are we ready to move from operative to non-operative/preventive treatment of dental caries in clinical practice? Caries Res 2004;38(3):294–304. DOI: 10.1159/000077769.
  3. Featherstone JD. Dental caries: a dynamic disease process. Aust Dent J 2008;53(3):286–291. DOI: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2008.00064.x.
  4. Guo L, Shi W. Salivary biomarkers for caries risk assessment. J Calif Dent Asso 2013;41(2):107–118.
  5. Burt BA. Concepts of risk in dental public health. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2005;33(4):240–247. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2005.00231.x.
  6. Young DA, Featherstone JD. Implementing caries risk assessment and clinical interventions. Dent Clin North Am 2010;54(3):495–505. DOI: 10.1016/j.cden.2010.04.002.
  7. Resta G, Pozzoli GA, Monestiroli P, et al. The Snyder test modified by Arthur Alban. Prev Stomatol 1982;8(2):7–9.
  8. Baca P, Parejo E, Bravo M, et al. Discriminant ability for caries risk of modified colorimetric tests. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2011;16(7):e978–e983. DOI: 10.4317/medoral.17358.
  9. Kutsch VK, Young DA. New directions in the etiology of dental caries disease. J Calif Dent Assoc 2011;39(10):716–721.
  10. Simón-Soro A, Mira A. Solving the etiology of dental caries. Trends Microbiol 2015;23(2):76–82. DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2014.10.010.
  11. Moynihan P, Petersen PE. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of dental diseases. Public Health Nutr 2004;7(1a):201–226. DOI: 10.1079/PHN2003589.
  12. Bali RK, Mathur VB, Talwar BB, et al. National oral health survey and fluoride mapping 2002. Dental Council of India (DCI); 2004.
  13. Powell LV. Caries prediction: a review of the literature. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1998;26(6):361–371. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1998.tb01974.x.
  14. Li Y, Wang W. Predicting caries in permanent teeth from caries in primary teeth: an eight-year cohort study. J Dent Res 2002;81(8): 561–566. DOI: 10.1177/154405910208100812.
  15. da Silva Bastos VD, Freitas-Fernandes LB, da Silva Fidalgo TK, et al. Mother-to-child transmission of Streptococcus mutans: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Dent 2015;43(2):181–191. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2014.12.001.
  16. Berkowitz RJ. Acquisition and transmission of mutans streptococci. CDA 2003;31(2):135–138.
  17. Hafez HS, Shaarawy SM, Al-Sakiti AA, et al. Dental crowding as a caries risk factor: a systematic review. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2012;142(4):443–450. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2012.04.018.
  18. Lamont RJ, Hajishengallis GN, Jenkinson HF. Oral Microbiol Immunol. ASM press; 2014.
  19. Lenander-Lumikari M, Loimaranta V. Saliva and dental caries. Adv Dent Res 2000;14(1):40–47. DOI: 10.1177/08959374000140010601.
  20. Tellez M, Gomez J, Pretty I, et al. Evidence on existing caries risk assessment systems: are they predictive of future caries? Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2013;41(1):67–78. DOI: 10.1111/cdoe.12003.
  21. Petersen PE. Sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries–international perspectives. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2005 Aug;33(4):274–279. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2005.00235.x.
  22. Peres MA, Peres KG, De Barros AJ, et al. The relation between family socioeconomic trajectories from childhood to adolescence and dental caries and associated oral behaviours. J Epidemiol Community Health 2007;61(2):141–145. DOI: 10.1136/jech.2005.044818.
  23. Bratthall D, Hänsel Petersson G. Cariogram–a multifactorial risk assessment model for a multifactorial disease. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2005;33(4):256–264. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2005.00233.x.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.