International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 12 , ISSUE 5 ( September-October, 2019 ) > List of Articles


Assessment of an Equimolar Mixture of Oxygen and Nitrous Oxide: Effects in Pediatric Dentistry

Adrien Allio, Samuel Bulteau, Morgane Rousselet, Serena Lopez-Cazaux, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau

Keywords : Equimolar mixture of oxygen and nitrous oxide, Observational study, Substance-related disorders

Citation Information : Allio A, Bulteau S, Rousselet M, Lopez-Cazaux S, Grall-Bronnec M, Victorri-Vigneau C. Assessment of an Equimolar Mixture of Oxygen and Nitrous Oxide: Effects in Pediatric Dentistry. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2019; 12 (5):429-436.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1658

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-02-2020

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2019; The Author(s).


Background: Many studies were conducted to assess the benefit/risk of equimolar mixture of oxygen and nitrous oxide (EMONO), but evaluating the appetite associated to its use is now getting very little attention in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects present, felt, and sought during care by the child related with the 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen (EMONO) sedation used in pediatric dentistry. Materials and methods: All patients in consultation with the Dental Service of Nantes hospital and in need of EMONO were included in the study. In this prospective single-center study, the effects present, felt, and sought during care by the child and the assessment of EMONO appreciation were recorded. The presence of clear signs that the child was trying to extend the duration of the EMONO use was also sought. Results: Only 62% of the patients were presented with an anxiolytic effect, and 40% relative analgesia. Both effects were associated in 33% of children. Over the 76 patients assessed, 12 attempted to extend the duration of the EMONO use (16%). After a bivariate statistical analysis, none of the variables appeared significantly associated with the extension of the EMONO use duration. Conclusion: The significant proportion of patients who have prolonged the EMONO use seems to indicate a real attraction for nitrous oxide. This is the first study to evaluate nitrous oxide appreciation on a child.

PDF Share
  1. Hopkins PM. Nitrous oxide: a unique drug of continuing importance for anaesthesia. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2005 Sep;19(3):381–389. DOI: 10.1016/j.bpa.2005.03.002.
  2. Wilson KE. Overview of paediatric dental sedation: 2. Nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation sedation. Dent Update 2013 Dec;40(10):822–824. DOI: 10.12968/denu.2013.40.10.822.
  3. Brunick A, Clark MS. Nitrous oxide and oxygen sedation: an update. Dent Assist 2013 Jul-Aug;82(4):12, 14-6, 8–9; quiz 20–21.
  4. Craig DC, Wildsmith JA. Conscious sedation for dentistry: an update. Br Dent J 2007 Dec 8;203(11):629–631. DOI: 10.1038/bdj.2007. 1105.
  5. Holroyd I, Roberts GJ. Inhalation sedation with nitrous oxide: a review. Dent Update 2000 Apr;27(3):141–142. DOI: 10.12968/denu.2000.27.3.141.
  6. Hennequin M, Collado V, et al. A clinical trial of efficacy and safety of inhalation sedation with a 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen premix (Kalinox) in general practice. Clin Oral Investig 2012 Apr;16(2):633–642. DOI: 10.1007/s00784-011-0550-y.
  7. Annequin D, Carbajal R, et al. Fixed 50% nitrous oxide oxygen mixture for painful procedures: A French survey. Pediatrics 2000 Apr;105(4):E47. DOI: 10.1542/peds.105.4.e47.
  8. Fidalgo M, Prud'homme T, et al. Laughing gas: what do we know about abuse? Results of the French addictovigilance network survey and literature review. Subst Abus 2019 Mar 26; 1–10.
  9. Miremont Salamé G, Théophie G, et al. Causality assessment in pharmacovigilance: the French method and its successive updates. Therapie 2016;71:179–186. DOI: 10.1016/j.therap.2016.02.010.
  10. Onody P, Gil P, et al. Safety of inhalation of a 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen premix: a prospective survey of 35 828 administrations. Drug Saf 2006;29(7):633–640. DOI: 10.2165/00002018-200629070-00008.
  11. Collado V, Nicolas E, et al. Evaluation of safe and effective administration of nitrous oxide after a postgraduate training course. BMC Clin Pharmacol 2008, Jun 11;8:3. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6904-8-3.
  12. Bahora M, Sterk CE, et al. Understanding recreational ecstasy use in the United States: A qualitative inquiry. Int J Drug Policy 2009 January;20(1):62–69. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2007.10.003.
  13. Sherman SG, German D, et al. Initiation of methamphetamine use among young Thai drug users: A qualitative study. J Adolesc Health 2008 January;42(1):36–42. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.07.002.
  14. Botvin GJ, Griffin KW, et al. Preventing illicit drug use in adolescents: long-term follow-up data from a randomized control trial of a school population. Addict Behav 2000 Sep-Oct;25(5):769–774. DOI: 10.1016/S0306-4603(99)00050-7.
  15. Weaver JM, Schofield TJ. Mediation and moderation of divorce effects on children's behavior problems. J Fam Psychol 2015 Feb;29(1):39–48. DOI: 10.1037/fam0000043.
  16. Koskenvuo K, Koskenvuo M. Childhood adversities predict strongly the use of psychotropic drugs in adulthood: a population-based cohort study of 24,284 Finns. J Epidemiol Community Health 2015 Apr;69(4):354–360. DOI: 10.1136/jech-2014-204732.
  17. Lara A, Crego A, et al. Emotional contagion of dental fear to children: the fathers’ mediating role in parental transfer of fear. Int J Paediatr Dent 2012 Sep;22(5):324–330. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2011.01200.x.
  18. Evans SM, Funderburk FR, et al. Zolpidem and triazolam in humans: behavioral and subjective effects and abuse liability. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1990 Dec;255(3):1246–1255.
  19. Griffiths RR, Bigelow GE, et al. Principles of initial experimental drug abuse liability assessment in humans. Drug Alcohol Depend 2003 Jun 5;70(3 Suppl):S41–S54. DOI: 10.1016/S0376-8716(03)00098-X.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.