Citation Information :
Saravanakumar M, Anjana G, Raghavan I. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy and Penetration Depth of Various Irrigants into the Dentinal Tubules with and without Lasers: A Stereomicroscopic Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2019; 12 (4):273-279.
Aim: To evaluate and compare the antibacterial efficacy and horizontal depth of penetration of various irrigants into the dentinal tubules when used alone and when combined with lasers.
Materials and methods: An experimental study was done on 42 single-rooted teeth. Access cavity preparation was done and the canals were enlarged up to a ProTaper file size F2 of length 25 mm. They were inoculated with 0.1 mL of Enterococcus faecalis and the samples were randomly assigned into six different groups of seven teeth each. The following irrigation systems were used individually and in combinations—normal saline, sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine gluconate, diode laser and erbium, chromium:ytrrium scandium gallium garnet laser (Er,Cr:YSGG laser). The colony-forming units (CFU) of bacteria before and after disinfection and the penetration depth of different groups were determined. Statistical analysis was done by an ANOVA test.
Results: The highest number of CFU of bacteria was shown by the group where saline was used and it also showed the least penetration depth compared to that of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser group.
Conclusion: Er,Cr:YSGG laser when used along with sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate showed the highest reduction in the CFU of bacteria and the greatest penetration depth when observed under a stereomicroscope.
Clinical significance: Laser-assisted irrigation regimes have a high antibacterial efficacy and more penetration depth into the dentinal tubules.
Hargreaves KM, Cohen S, et al. Cohen's Pathways of the Pulp, 10th ed., St. Louis: Mosby; 2011. p. 245.
Suresh Chandra B, Gopikrishna V. Grossman's Endodontic Practice, 12th ed., Wolters Kluwer Health; 2010. p. 266.
Rajeshwari KP, Kundabala M, et al. An evaluation of horizontal depth of penetration of various irrigants into the dentinal tubules when used alone and in combination with diode laser: An in vitro study. J Interdiscip Dent 2014;4:130–134. DOI: 10.4103/2229-5194.147331.
Haapasalo HK, Sirén EK, et al. Inactivation of local root canal medicaments by dentine: An in vitro study. Int Endod J 2000;33: 126–131. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2591.2000.00291.x.
Kuruvilla JR, Kamath MP. Antimicrobial activity of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate separately and combined, as endodontic irrigants. J Endod 1998;24:472–476. DOI: 10.1016/S0099-2399(98)80049-6.
Gutknetcht N, Van Gogswaardt DI, et al. Diode laser radiation and its bactericidal effect in root canal wall dentin. J Clin Laser Med Sur 2000 Apr;18(2):57–60. DOI: 10.1089/clm.2000.18.57.
Altundasar E, Özçelik B, et al. Ultramorphological and histochemical changes after ER,CR:YSGG laser irradiation and two different irrigation regimes. J Endod 2006 May;32(5):465–468. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2005.08.005.
Kimura Y, Yu DG, et al. Effects of erbium, chromium: YSGG laser irradiation on root surface: morphological and atomic analytical studies. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2001 Apr;19(2):69–72. DOI: 10.1089/104454701750285386.
Wang X, Sun Y, et al. Effect of diode irradiation on smear layer removal from root canal walls and apical leakage after obturation. Photomed Laser Surg 2005;23(6):575–581. DOI: 10.1089/pho.2005.23.575.
Asnaashari M, Safavi N. Disinfection of contaminated canals by different laser wavelengths, while performing root canal therapy. J Lasers Med Sci 2013;4(1):8.
Gordon W, Atabakhsh VK, et al. The antimicrobial efficacy of the erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser with radial emitting tips on root canal dentin walls infected with Enterococcus faecalis. J Am Dent Assoc 2007 Jul;138(7):992–1002. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2007.0297.
Schoop U, Goharkhay K, et al. The use of the Erbium, Chromium: Yttrium-Scandium-Gallium-Garnet laser in endodontic treatment: the results of an in vitro study. J Am Dent Assoc 2007;138(7):949–955. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2007.0291.
Ghorbanzadeh A, Aminsobhani M, et al. Penetration Depth of Sodium Hypochlorite in Dentinal Tubules after Conventional Irrigation, Passive Ultrasonic Agitation and Nd:YAG Laser Activated Irrigation. J Lasers Med Sci 2016 Spring;7(2):105–111. DOI: 10.15171/jlms.2016.18.
Bago I, Plečko V, et al. Antimicrobial efficacy of a high-power diode laser, photo-activated disinfection, conventional and sonic activated irrigation during root canal treatment. Int Endod J 2013 Apr;46(4):339–347. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2012.02120.x.