Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether imperfections in the anterior dentition affect the emotional and/or social well being of school going children in Amritsar district of Punjab, India.
Methods: A total of 2582 children between the ages 10 and 15 years of both genders were examined. Of these, 528 children with esthetic imperfections were asked a series of questions to assess their emotional and social disposition, with respect to children with no esthetic defects.
Results: Females were more shy if they did not have a perfect anterior dentition (p = 0.000). Low socioeconomic status corresponded with gender (females) in determining emotional insecurity. Malocclusion was the most common cause of aesthetic defects (291/528 children), followed by causes such as, hypoplasisa/ hypocalcification, stains, peg shaped, microdontia, congenitally missing (46.4%), trauma (30.5%) and caries (1.2%). Irrespective of cause of defect, 53.8% of children were emotionally affected, in that, were fearful of being teased by other children (77.1%).
da Silva GC, Castilhos ED, et al. Dental esthetic self-perception of Brazilian dental students. RSBO 2012 Oct–Dec;9(4):375–381.
Van der Geld P, Oosterveld P, et al. Smile attractiveness. Angle Orthod 2007 Sep;77(5):759–765. DOI: 10.2319/082606-349.
Klages U, Bruckner A, et al. Dental aesthetics, self-awareness, and oral-related quality of life in young adults. Eur J Orthodont 2004 Oct;26(5):507–514. DOI: 10.1093/ejo/26.5.507.
Modi S, Williams L, et al. Development of an illustrated index of tooth appearance-perception-based quantification of tooth discolouration and surface defects. Int J Paediatr Dent 2010 Jul;20(4):293–304. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2010.01053.x.
Goldstein RE. Esthetic dentistry—a health service? J Dent Res 1993 Oct;72(10):641–642. DOI: 10.1177/00220345930720031501.
Holan G, Rahme MA, et al. Parents’ attitude toward their children's appearance in the case of esthetic defects of the anterior primary teeth. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2009 Winter;34(2):141–145. DOI: 10.17796/jcpd.34.2.910037663v7pm6vg.
Craig SA, Baker SR, et al. Enamel defects in young patients. Int J Paediatr Dent 2015;25:399–408. DOI: 10.1111/ipd.12146.
Rodd HD, Abdul-Karim A, et al. Seeking children's perspectives in the management of visible enamel defects. Int J Paediatr Dent 2011 Mar;21(2):89–95. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2010.01096.x.
Newton JT, Prabhu N, et al. The impact of dental appearance on the appraisal of personal characteristics. Int J Prosthodont 2003;16:429–434.
Williams DM, Chestnutt IG, et al. Characteristics attributed to individuals with dental fluorosis. Community Dent Health 2006;23:209–216.
Abanto J, Carvalho TS, et al. Impact of oral diseases and disorders on oral health-related quality of life of preschool children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2011;39:105–114. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2010.00580.x.
de Paula JS, Leite IC, et al. The impact of socioenvironmental characteristics on domains of oral health-related quality of life in Brazilian schoolchildren. BMC Oral Health 2013;13:10. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-13-10.
Hamdam AM. The relationship between patient, parent and clinician perceived need and normative orthodontic treatment need. Eur J Orthod 2004;26:265–271. DOI: 10.1093/ejo/26.3.265.
O'Brien CO, Benson PE, et al. Evaluation of a quality of life measure for children with malocclusion. J Orthod 2007;34:185–193. DOI: 10.1179/146531207225022185.
Chen E, Matthews KA, et al. Socioeconomic differences in children's health: how and why do these relationships change with age? Psychol Bull 2002;128:295–329. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.2.295.
Schuch HS, Costa Fdos S, et al. Oral health-related quality of life of schoolchildren: impact of clinical and psychosocial variables. Int J Paediatr Dent 2015;25:358–365. DOI: 10.1111/ipd.12118.
de Paula Júnior DF, Santos NC, et al. Psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics on quality of life in adolescents. Angle Orthod 2009;79:1188–1193. DOI: 10.2319/082608-452R.1.
Phillips C, Beal KNE. Self-concept and the perception of facial appearance in children and adolescents seeking orthodontic treatment. Angle Orthod 2009;79:12–16. DOI: 10.2319/071307-328.1.
Onyeaso CO, Sanu OO. Perception of personal dental appearance in Nigerian adolescents. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2005;127:700–706. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2003.12.028.
Cortes MI, Marcenes W, et al. Impact of traumatic injuries to the permanent teeth on the oral health-related quality of life in 12–14-year-old children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2002;30:193–198. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0528.2002.300305.x.
Aldrigui JM, Abanto J, et al. Impact of traumatic dental injuries and malocclusions on quality of life of young children. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2011;9:78. DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-9-78.
Bendo CB, Paiva SM, et al. Oral health-related quality of life and traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian adolescents. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2014;42:216–223. DOI: 10.1111/cdoe.12078.
Wong AT, McMillan AS, et al. Oral health-related quality of life and severe hypodontia. J Oral Rehabil 2006;33:869–873. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.2006.01654.x.
Locker D, Jokovic A, et al. Family impact of child oral and oro-facial conditions. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2002;30:438–448. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0528.2002.00015.x.
Bradley RH, Corwyn RF. Socioeconomic status and child development. Annu Rev Psychol 2002;53:371–399. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135233.