Comparison of Visual Examination and Magnification with DIAGNOdent for Detection of Smooth Surface Initial Carious Lesion–Dry and Wet Conditions
Noopur Gupta, Meera Sandhu, Pulkit Jhingan
DIAGNOdent, Magnifying loupes, Reliability, White spot lesion
Citation Information :
Gupta N, Sandhu M, Jhingan P. Comparison of Visual Examination and Magnification with DIAGNOdent for Detection of Smooth Surface Initial Carious Lesion–Dry and Wet Conditions. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2019; 12 (1):37-41.
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and reliability of magnification, DIAGNOdent in detection of smooth surface white spot lesions.
Study design: Three hundred children aged 5-10 years were examined by two examiners for presence of smooth surface white spot lesions using naked eye and magnifying loupes in wet and dry conditions followed by DIAGNOdent analysis. Data was analysed using Cohen's kappa coefficient, Friedman test and Paired t test. Accuracy was assessed by sensitivity and positive predicted values.
Results: Significant difference was found between naked eyes and magnifying loupes with and without air drying. While insignificant difference was found between DIAGNOdent and loupes.
Conclusion: Magnifying loupes with air drying is an effective method in detection of smooth surface white spot lesion.
Clinical significance: With the increased knowledge about the pathogenesis of dental caries and its ability to be remineralisable if detected early, makes it all the more important for the clinician to be vigilant in detection of early lesion to prevent the avoidable restorative approach for the same. Incorporation of magnification to routine dental examination by general dentist can help in early diagnosis and treatment of dental decay. This could prevent further progression of dental caries and reduces the incidence of tooth decay
Lee JH, Kim DG, et al. Minimally invasive treatment for esthetic enhancement of white spot lesion in adjacent tooth. J Adv Prosthodont 2013 Aug;5(3):353–363.
Mount GJ, Hume WR. Dent Clin North Am 2005; 701–723. DOI: 10.1016/j.cden.2005.05.012.
Laurence J, Walsh J. Changes in DIAGNOdent scores in smooth surface enamel carious lesions in primary teeth: a longitudinal clinical study. Oral Laser Appl 2008;8(3):157–164.
Apotheker H, Jako GJ. A microscope for use in dentistry. J Microsurg 1981;3(1):7–10. DOI: 10.1002/micr.1920030104.
Goel D, Sandhu M, et al. Effectiveness of air drying and magnification methods for detecting initial caries on occlusal surfaces using three different diagnostic aids. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;40(3):221–226. DOI: 10.17796/1053-4628-40.3.221.
Ismail AI, Sohn W, et al. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS): an integrated system for measuring dental caries. Commun Dent Oral Epidemiol 2007Jun;35(3):170–178. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2007.00347.x.
Hibst R, Gall R. Development of a diode laser based fluorescence caries detector. Caries Res 1998;32:294.
Chong MJ, Seow WK, et al. Visual-tactile examination compared with conventional radiography, digital radiography, and DIAGNOdent in the diagnosis of occlusal occult caries in extracted premolars. Pediatr Dent 2003 July–Aug;25(4):341–349.
Shi XQ, Welander U, et al. Occlusal caries detection with KaVo DIAGNOdent and radiography: an in vitro comparison. Caries Res 2000 Mar–Apr;34(2):151–158. DOI: 10.1159/000016583.
Hall AF, DeSchepper E, et al. In vitro studies of laser fluorescence for detection and quantification of mineral loss from dental caries. Adv Dent Res Nov 1997;11(4):507–514. DOI: 10.1177/0895937- 4970110041901.
Pinelli C, Loffredo LCM, et al. Effect of drying on the reproducibility of DIAGNOdent to detect caries-like lesions. Braz Dent J 2010;21(5):405–
Braga MM, Mendes FM, et al. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions. Dent Clin N Am 2010;54:479–493. DOI: 10.1016/j.cden.2010.03.006.
Erten H, Uctasli MB, et al. The assessment of unaided visual examination, intraoral camera and operating microscope for the detection of occlusal caries lesions. Oper Dent 2005 Mar–Apr;30(2):190–194.
Bahrololoomi Z, Musavi SA, et al. In vitro evaluation of the efficacy of laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent) to detect demineralization and remineralization of smooth enamel lesions. J Conserv Dent 2013 Jul;16(4):362–366. DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.114360.
Karlsson L. Caries detection methods based on changes in optical properties between healthy and carious tissue. Int J Dent 2010 Mar; (2010):1–9. DOI: 10.1155/2010/270729.
Amaechi BT. Emerging technologies for diagnosis of dental caries: the road so far. J Appl Phys 2009;105:102047. DOI: 10.1063/1.3116632.
Cortes DF, Ekstrand KR, et al. An in vitro comparison of the ability of fibre-optic transillumination, visual inspection and radiographs to detect occlusal caries and evaluate lesion depth. Caries Res 2000 Nov–Dec;34(6):443–447. DOI: 10.1159/000016621.
Peker I, Alkurt MT, et al. The efficiency of operating microscope compared with unaided visual examination, conventional and digital intraoral radiography for proximal caries detection. Int J Dent 2009 Jan; 1–6. DOI: 10.1155/2009/986873.