Papillon–Lefèvre is an autosomal recessive syndrome that starts in early periods of childhood. Characteristic features include palmar plantar hyperkeratosis, aggressive periodontal disease, and a tendency for dry and chopped skin, thin and sparse hair. Patients show signs of premature tooth loss at the age of 2 to 4 years, which is then followed by the loss of permanent dentition during adolescence. The presence of both skin and oral lesions in this syndrome differentiates this unusual genodermatosis from other pathology of palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK). The etiopathogenesis of this syndrome is somewhat obscure; however, immunologic, genetic, and possible bacterial etiologies have been proposed. The dental practitioner is often the first to diagnose the disease, as there is a significant degree of periodontal breakdown that is involved at an early age. This report presents a clinical presentation of two brothers detected with Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome (PLS).
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