Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical options for supernumerary teeth (SNT) in the premaxillary region of children.
Materials and methods: A total of 69 patients with 82 partially or completely formed SNT in the anterior maxillary region were identified over a 3-year period. All selected patients were assessed for the number, location, and family history of SNT, damage to adjacent roots, and associated symptoms. The surgical approaches used for removal were recorded. Postoperative clinical sequelae (loss of vitality, periodontal problems, pain, bleeding, and enanthema) were evaluated.
Results: A total of 43, 30, and 9 SNT were extracted with palatal, buccal, and bicortical approaches respectively. Periodontal and vitality assessments revealed no problems in adjacent teeth at 6 months after surgery. Postoperative pain was within acceptable levels in all patients and subsided within 3 to 7 days. Mild postoperative bleeding occurred in eight patients. Enanthema subsided within 10 days in all patients.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that early diagnosis and appropriate surgical treatment of SNT are important to decrease the risk of clinical complications.
Seddon RP, Johnstone SC, Smith PB. Mesiodentes in twins: a case report and a review of the literature. Int J Paediatr Dent 1997 Sep;7(3):177-184.
Segura JJ, Jimenez-Rubio A. Concomitant hypohyperdontia: simultaneous occurrence of a mesiodens and agenesis of a maxillary lateral incisor. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1998 Oct;86(4):473-475.
Sedano HO, Gorlin RJ. Familial occurrence of mesiodens. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1969 Mar;27(3):360-361.
Shafer, M.; Hine, M.; Levy, B.; editors. Developmental disturbances of oral and paraoral structures. In: A textbook of oral pathology. Philadelphia (PA): Saunders; 1983. p. 47-49.
Giancotti A, Grazzini F, De Dominicis F, Romanini G, Arcuri C. Multidisciplinary evaluation and clinical management of mesiodens. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2002 Spring;26(3):233-237.
Richardson A, Deussen FF. Facial and dental anomalies in cleidocranial dysplasia: a study of 17 cases. Int J Paediatr Dent 1994 Dec;4(4):225-231.
Mason C, Azam N, Holt RD, Rule DC. A retrospective study of unerupted maxillary incisors associated with supernumerary teeth. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2000 Feb;38(1):62-65.
Batra P, Duggal R, Parkash H. Non-syndromic multiple supernumerary teeth transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. J Oral Pathol Med 2005 Nov;34(10):621-625.
Brook AH. Dental anomalies of number, form and size: their prevalence in British school children. J Int Assoc Dent Child 1974 Dec;5(2):37-53.
Mason C, Azam N, Holt RD, Rule DC. A retrospective study of unerupted maxillary incisors associated with supernumerary teeth. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2000 Feb;38(1):62-65.
Primo LG, Wilhelm RS, Bastos EP. Frequency and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in Brazilian children: consequences and proposed treatments. Rev Odontol Univ São Paulo 1997 Oct-Dec;11(4):231-237.
Rajab LD, Hamdan MA. Supernumerary teeth: review of the literature and a survey of 152 cases. Int J Paediatr Dent 2002 Jul;12(4):244-254.
Luten JR Jr. The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in primary and mixed dentitions. J Dent Child 1967 Sep;34(5):346-353.
Leyland L, Batra P, Wong F, Llewelyn R. A retrospective evaluation of the eruption of impacted permanent incisors after extraction of supernumerary teeth. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2006 Spring;30(3):225-231.
Nazif MM, Ruffalo RC, Zullo T. Impacted supernumerary teeth: a survey of 50 cases. J Am Dent Assoc 1983 Feb;106(2):201-204.
Zilberman Y, Malron M, Shteyer A. Assessment of 100 children in Jerusalem with supernumerary teeth in the premaxillary region. ASDC J Dent Child 1992 Jan-Feb;59(1): 44-47.
Koch H, Schwartz O, Klausen B. Indications for surgical removal of supernumerary teeth in the premaxilla. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1986 Jun;15(3):273-281.
De Oliveira Gomes C, Drummond SN, Jham BC, Abdo EN, Mesquita RA. A survey of 460 supernumerary teeth in Brazilian children and adolescents. Int J Paediatr Dent 2008 Mar;18(2):98-106.
Choi SJ, Cruz JC, Craig F, Chung H, Devlin RD, Roodman GD, Alsina M. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1-alpha is a potential osteoclast stimulatory factor in multiple myeloma. Blood 2000 Jul;96(2):671-675.
Kimata M, Shichijo M, Daikoku M, Inagaki N, Mori H, Nagai H. Pharamacological modulation of LPS-induced MIP-1 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Pharmacology 1998 May;56(5):230-236.
Garlet GP, Martins W Jr, Ferreira BR, Milanezi CM, Silva JS. Patterns of chemokines and chemokine receptors expression in different forms of human periodontal disease. J Periodontal Res 2003 Apr;38(2):210-217.
Mohamed HG, Idris SB, Ahmed MG, Astrom AN, Mustafa K, Ibrahim SO, Mustafa M. Influence of type 2 diabetes on local production of inflammatory molecules in adults with and without chronic periodontitis: a cross-sectional study. BMC Oral Health 2015 Jul;15:86.
Scott A Saunders SA. Current practicality of nanotechnology in dentistry. Part 1: focus on nanocomposite restoratives and biomimetics. Clin Cosmet Investig Dent 2009 Nov;1:47-61.
3M Dental Product Laboratory (US). FiltekTM Z250 Universal technical system: technical product profile. St. Paul (MN): Dental Product Laboratory; 1998. Available from: http://solutions.3m.com/wps/portal/3M/en_US/3M-ESPE-NA/ dental-professionals/products/espe-catalog/~/Filtek- Z250-Universal-Restorative.
Meng Zhang M, Matinlinna JP. E-Glass fiber reinforced composites in dental applications. Silicon 2012 Jan;4(1):73-78.
Sema Belli S, Eskitascioglu G. Biomechanical properties and clinical use of a polyethylene fibre post-core Material; Int Dent South Africa 2011 May-Jun;8(3):20-26.
Ruffino AR. Effect of stainless steel strengthener on fracture resistance of the acrylic resin complete denture base. J Prosthet Dent 1985 Jul;54(1):75-78.
Ellakwa AE, Shortall AC, Shehata MK, Marquis PM. The influence of fibre placement and position on the efficiency of reinforcement of fibre reinforced composite bridgework. J Oral Rehab 2001 Aug;28(8):785-791.
Tuloglu N, Bayrak S, Tunc ES. Different clinical applications of bondable reinforcement ribbond in pediatric dentistry. Eur J Dent 2009 Oct;3(4):329-334.
Amir Chafaie A, Portier R. Anterior fiber-reinforced composite resin bridge: a case report. Pediatr Dent 2004 Nov- Dec;26(6):530-534.
Praveen Kumar PS, Nandlal B, Srilatha KT. Restoration of fractured central incisor using glass fiber-reinforced composite resin (GFRCR): a case report. Indian Dent Res Rev 2009.
Dean JA, Avery DR, Swartz ML. Attachment of anterior tooth fragments. Pediatr Dent 1986 Jun;8(3):139-143.
Stellini E, Stomaci D, Stomaci M, Petrone N, Favero L. Fracture strength of tooth fragment reattachments with postpone bevel and overcontour reconstruction. Dent Traumatol 2008 Jun;24(3):283-288.
Tezvergil A, Lassila LV, Yli-Urpo A, Vallittu PK. Repair bond strength of restorative resin composite applied to fiber reinforced composite substrate. Acta Odontol Scand 2004 Jul;62(1):51-60.
Sufyan Garoushi S, Lassila LV, Tezvergil A, Vallittu PK. Load bearing capacity of fibre-reinforced and particulate filler composite resin combination. J Dent 2006 Mar;34(3):179-184.
Sufyan K. Garoushi SK, Lassila LV, Vallittu PK. Direct composite resin restoration of an anterior tooth: effect of fiberreinforced composite substructure. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent 2007 Jun;15(2):61-66.
Vallittu PK. Glass fibre reinforcement in repaired acrylic resin removable dentures: preliminary results of a clinical study. Quintessence Int 1997 Jan;28(1):39-44.
Burkhart N. Understanding and managing the autistic child in the dental office. Dent Hyg (Chic) 1984 Feb;58(2):60-63.
Delli K, Reichart PA, Bornstein MM, Livas C. Management of children with autism spectrum disorder in the dental setting: Concerns, behavioural approaches and recommendations. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2013 Nov;18(6):e862-e868.
American Acaedemy of pediatric Dentistry: Clinical affairs committee. Guideline on behavior guidance for the pediatric dental patient. Pediatr Dent 2008-2009;30(7 Suppl):125-133.
Klingberg, G. Behavior management—children and adolescents. In: Nunn J, editor. Disability and oral care. London: FDI Dental Press; 2000. pp. 82-92.
Lowe O, Jedrychowski JR. A sedation technique for autistic patients who require dental treatment. Spec Care Dentist 1987 Nov;7(6):267-270.
Glandin T. Calming effect of deep touch pressure in patients with Autistic disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 1992 Spring;2(1):63-72.
Grandin, T. Thinking in pictures. New York: Doubleday; 1995.
Depalma, AM.; Roposa, KA. Building bridges—part 2: understanding and guiding the dental patients with autism. Chesterland (OH): Academy of Dental Therapeutics and Stomatology; 2012. [cited 2012 Jun 2]. Available from: www. ineedce.com.
Stein LI, Polido JC, Mailloux Z, Coleman GG, Cermak SA. Oral care and sensory sensitivities in children with autism spectrum disorders. Spec Care Dentist 2011 May-Jun;31(3):102-110.
Hernandez P, Ikkanda Z. Applied behavior analysis: behavior management of children with autism spectrum disorders in dental environments. J Am Dent Assoc 2011 Mar;142(3): 281-287.
Newton JT, Shah S, Patel H, Sturmey P. Non-pharmacological approaches to behaviour management in children. Dent Update 2003 May;30(4):194-199.
Brill WA. Parent's assessment and children's reactions to a passive restraint device used for behavior control in a private pediatric dental practice. J Dent Child 2002 Sep-Dec;69(3):310-313.
Leung CM, Lai LSW, Wong WH, Chan KH, Luk YW, Lai JY, Yeung YW, Hui WM. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: an expanding problem with low levels of awareness in Hong Kong. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009 Nov;24(11):1786-1790.
Grattagliano I, D'Ambrosio G, Palmieri VO, Moschetta A, Palasciano G, Portincasa P; “Steatostop Project” Group. Improving nonalcoholic fatty liver disease management by general practitioners: a critical evaluation and impact of an educational training program. J Gastrointest Liver Dis 2008 Dec;17(4):389-394.
Kallman JB, Arsalla A, Park V, Dhungel S, Bhatia P, Haddad D, Wheeler A, Younossi ZM. Screening for hepatitis B, C and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a survey of communitybased physicians. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2009 May; 29(9):1019-1024.
Singh SP, Misra B, Misra D, Pati GK, Singh A, Kar SK, Panigrahi MK, Meher C, Agrawal O. P841 Awareness and opinion of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients about obesity and its consequences. J Hepatol 2014 Apr;60(1):S352.
Tuomilehto J, Lindström J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Louheranta A, Rastas M, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 2001 May;344(18):1343-1350.
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002 Feb;346(6):393-403.
Bae JC, Suh S, Park SE, Rhee EJ, Park CY, Oh KW, Park SW, Kim SW, Hur KY, Kim JH, et al. Regular exercise is associated with a reduction in the risk of NAFLD and decreased liver enzymes in individuals with NAFLD independent of obesity in Korean adults. PLoS One 2012 Oct;7(10):e46819.
Perseghin G, Lattuada G, De Cobelli F, Ragogna F, Ntali G, Esposito A, Belloni E, Canu T, Terruzzi I, Scifo P, et al. Habitual physical activity is associated with intrahepatic fat content in humans. Diabetes Care 2007 Mar;30(3):683-688.
Lawlor DA, Sat tar N, Smith GD, Ebrahim S. The associations of physical activity and adiposity with alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase. Am J Epidemiol 2005 Jun;161(11):1081-1088.
Zelber-Sagi S, Nitzan-Kaluski D, Goldsmith R, Webb M, Zvibel I, Goldiner I, Blendis L, Halpern Z, Oren R. Role of leisuretime physical activity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based study. Hepatology 2008 Dec;48(6):1791-1798.
Dalle Grave R, Calugi S, Centis E, El Ghoch M, Marchesini G. Cognitive-behavioral strategies to increase the adherence to exercise in the management of obesity. J Obesity 2011 Oct;2011:348293.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The practical guide: identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health; 2000.
Trovato FM, Martines GF, Brischetto D, Catalano D, Musumeci G, Trovato GM. Fatty liver disease and lifestyle in youngsters: diet, food intake frequency, exercise, sleep shortage and fashion. Liver Int 2016 Mar;36(3):427-433.
Park HS, Jang JE, Ko MS, Woo SH, Kim BJ, Kim HS, Park HS, Park IS, Koh EH, Lee KU. Statins increase mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in the liver and prevent non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice. Diabetes Metab J 2016 Oct;40(5):376-385.
Athyros VG, Boutari C, Stavropoulos K, Anagnostis P, Imprialos KP, Doumas M, Karagiannis A. Statins: an underappreciated asset for the prevention and the treatment of NAFLD or NASH and the related cardiovascular risk. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2017 Jun;15:1-28.
Kostapanos MS, Kei A, Elisaf MS. Current role of fenofibrate in the prevention and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. World J Hepatol 2013 Sep;5(9):470-478.
Shiri-Sverdlov R, Wouters K, van Gorp PJ, Gijbels MJ, Noel B, Buffat L, Staels B, Maeda N, van Bilsen M, Hofker MH. Early diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in APOE2 knock-in mice and its prevention by fibrates. J Hepatol 2006 Apr;44(4):732-741.
Brandi G, De Lorenzo S, Candela M, Pantaleo MA, Bellentani S, Tovoli F, Saccoccio G, Biasco G. Microbiota, NASH, HCC and the potential role of probiotics. Carcinogenesis 2017 Mar;38(3):231-240.
Anderson EL, Howe LD, Fraser A, Callaway MP, Sattar N, Day S, Tilling K, Lawlor DA. Weight trajectories through infancy and childhood and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescence: the ALSPAC study. J Hepatol 2014 Sep;61(3):626-632.
Ayonrinde OT, Olynyk JK, Marsh JA, Beilin LJ, Mori TA, Oddy WH, Adams LA. Childhood adiposity trajectories and risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescents. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015 Jan;30(1):163-171.
Sandboge S, Perala MM, Salonen MK, Blomstedt PA, Osmond C, Kajantie E, Barker DJ, Eriksson JG. Early growth and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adulthood-the NAFLD liver fat score and equation applied on the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Ann Med 2013 Sep;45(5-6):430-437.
Zimmermann E, Gamborg M, Holst C, Baker JL, Sørensen TI, Berentzen TL. Body mass index in school-aged children and the risk of routinely diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adulthood: a prospective study based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. BMJ Open 2015 May;5(4):e006998.
Reece EA, Hagay Z, Roberts AB, DeGennaro N, Homko CJ, Connolly-Diamond M, Sherwin R, Tamborlane WV, Diamond MP. Fetal Doppler and behavioral responses during hypoglycemia induced with the insulin clamp technique in pregnant diabetic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995 Jan;172(1 Pt 1):151-155.
Patrick J, Campbell K, Carmichael L, Natale R, Richardson B. Patterns of gross fetal body movements over 24-hour observation intervals during the last 10 weeks of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 Feb;142(4):363-371.
Ornoy A, Ratzon N, Greenbaum C, Peretz E, Soriano D, Dulitzky M. Neurobehavior of school age children born to diabetic mothers. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1998 Sep;79(2):F94-F99.
Wolf, A. Developmental evaluation on early school age children born to gestational diabetic mothers. Israel: Hebrew University; 1997.
Mulder EJ, Leiblum DM, Visser GH. Fetal breathing movements in late diabetic pregnancy: relationship to fetal heart rate patterns and Braxton Hicks’ contractions. Early Hum Dev 1995 Nov;43(3):225-232.
Schulte FJ, Michaelis R, Nolte R, Albert G, Parl U, Lasson U. Brain and behavioral maturation in newborn infants of diabetic mothers. I. Nerve conduction and EEG patterns. Neuropadiatrie 1969 Jan-Jul;1(1):24-35.
Devoe LD, Youssef AA, Castillo RA, Croom CS. Fetal biophysical activities in third-trimester pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994 Aug;171(2):298-303.
Dierker LJ Jr, Pillay S, Sorokin Y, Rosen MG. The change in fetal activity periods in diabetic and nondiabetic pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 May;143(2):181-185.
Doherty NN, Hepper PG. Habituation in fetuses of diabetic mothers. Early Hum Dev 2000 Aug;59(2):85-93.
Kainer F, Prechtl HF, Engele H, Einspieler C. Assessment of the quality of general movements in fetuses and infants of women with type-1 diabetes mellitus. Early Hum Dev 1997 Nov;50(1):13-25.
Mulder EJ, O'Brien MJ, Lems YL, Visser GH, Prechtl HF. Body and breathing movements in near-term fetuses and newborn infants of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1990 Nov;24(2):131-152.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. I. Early growth patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):91-106.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. II. Emergence of specific movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):107-115.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Impact of early growth delay on subsequent fetal growth and functional development: a study on diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1992 Dec;31(2):91-95.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Bekedam DJ, Prechtl HF. Emergence of behavioral states in fetuses of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1987 Jul;15(4):231-251.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Morssink LP, de Vries JI. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. III. First trimester quantity of fetal movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):117-133.
Aberg A, Westbom L, Kallen B. Congenital malformations among infants whose mothers had gestational diabetes or preexisting diabetes. Early Hum Dev 2001 Mar;61(2):85-95.
Deregnier RA, Nelson CA, Thomas KM, Wewerka S, Georgieff MK. Neurophysiologic evaluation of auditory recognition memory in healthy newborn infants and infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 2000 Dec;137(6):777-784.
Nelson CA, Wewerka S, Thomas KM, Tribby-Walbridge S, deRegnier R, Georgieff M. Neurocognitive sequelae of infants of diabetic mothers. Behav Neurosci 2000 Oct;114(5):950-956.
Reece EA, Homko CJ. Infant of the diabetic mother. Semin Perinatol 1994 Oct;18(5):459-469.
Reece EA, Homko CJ. Why do diabetic women deliver malformed infants? Clin Obstet Gynecol 2000 Mar;43(1):32-45.
Rizzo T, Metzger BE, Burns WJ, Burns K. Correlations between antepartum maternal metabolism and intelligence of offspring. N Engl J Med 1991 Sep;325(13):911-916.
Rizzo TA, Metzger BE, Dooley SL, Cho NH. Early malnutrition and child neurobehavioral development: insights from the study of children of diabetic mothers. Child Dev 1997 Feb;68(1):26-38.
Schwartz R, Teramo KA. Effects of diabetic pregnancy on the fetus and newborn. Semin Perinatol 2000 Apr;24(2):120-135.
Vaarasmaki MS, Hartikainen A, Anttila M, Pramila S, Koivisto M. Factors predicting peri- and neonatal outcome in diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 2000 Jul;59(1):61-70.
Robertson SS, Dierker LJ. Fetal cyclic motor activity in diabetic pregnancies: sensitivity to maternal blood glucose. Dev Psychobiol 2003 Jan;42(1):9-16.
Accardo PJ, Blondis TA, Whitman BY. Disorders of attention and activity level in a referral population. Pediatrics 1990 Mar;85(3 Pt 2):426-431.
Ornoy A, Uriel L, Tennenbaum A. Inattention, hyperactivity and speech delay at 2-4 years of age as a predictor for ADDADHD syndrome. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 1993;30(3):155-163.
Smyth TR. Impaired motor skill (clumsiness) in otherwise normal children: a review. Child Care Health Dev 1992 Sep-Oct;18(5):283-300.
Petersen MB, Pedersen SA, Greisen G, Pedersen JF, Mølsted- Pedersen L. Early growth delay in diabetic pregnancy: relation to psychomotor development at age 4. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988 Feb;296(6622):598-600.
Sells CJ, Robinson NM, Brown Z, Knopp RH. Long-term developmental follow-up of infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 1994 Jul;125(1):S9-S17.
Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehaviour in high risk pregnancies. DSJUOG 2012 Apr-Jun;6(2):132-147.
Talic A, Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Stanojevic M, Predojevic M, Kadic AS, Di Renzo GC. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal behavior in high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011 Jul;24(7):948-954.
Bekedam DJ, Visser GH, de Vries JJ, Prechtl HF. Motor behaviour in the growth retarded fetus. Early Hum Dev 1985 Nov;12(2):155-165.
Cioni G, Prechtl HF. Preterm and early postterm motor behaviour in low-risk premature infants. Early Hum Dev 1990 Sep;23(3):159-191.
Seme-Ciglenecki P. Predictive value of assessment of general movements for neurological development of highrisk preterm infants: comparative study. Croat Med J 2003 Dec;44(6):721-727.
Abo-Yaqoub S, Kurjak A, Mohammed AB, Shadad A, Abdel-Maaboud M. The role of 4-D ultrasonography in prenatal assessment of fetal neurobehaviour and prediction of neurological outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Mar;25(3):231-236.
Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, Theodoridis TD, Papastergiou M, Assimakopoulos E, Tarlatzis BC. Neurodevelopmental fetal assessment using KANET scoring system in low and high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Mar;26(4):363-368.
Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, Legro RS, Balen AH, Lobo R, Carmina E, Chang J, Yildiz BO, Laven JS, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril 2012 Jan;97(1):28-38.e25
Sirmans SM, Pate KA. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Epidemiol 2014; 6:1-13.
Fauser BC, Diedrich K, Bouchard P, Domínguez F, Matzuk M, Franks S, Hamamah S, Simón C, Devroey P, Ezcurra D, et al. Contemporary genetic technologies and female reproduction. Human Reproduction Update 2011 Nov;17(6):829-847.
Balen A, Conway G, Kaltsas G. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the spectrum of the disorder in 1741 patients. Hum Reprod 1995 Aug;10(8):2107-2111.
Azziz R, Sanchez L, Knochenhauer ES, Moran C, Lazenby J, Stephens KC, Taylor K, Boots LR. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004 Feb;89(2):453-462.
Wild S, Pierpoint T, McKeigue P, Jacobs H. Cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome at longterm follow-up: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000 May;52(5):595-600.
Hollinrake E, Abreu A, Maifeld M, Van Voorhis BJ, Dokras A. Increased risk of depressive disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2007 Jun;87(6): 1369-1376.
Zawadski JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome. In: Givens JHF, Merriman G, editors. The polycystic ovary syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992. p. 377-384.
Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25.
Azziz R, Carmina E, DeWailly D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Escobar-Morreale HF, Futterweit W, Janssen OE, Legro RS, Norman RJ, Taylor AE, et al. Position statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-4245.
Lujan ME, Jarrett BY, Brooks ED, Reines JK, Peppin AK, Muhn N, Haider E, Pierson RA, Chizen DR. Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume. Hum Reprod 2013 May;28(5):1361-1368.
Badawy A, Elnashar A. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Womens Health 2011 Feb;3:25-35.
ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No 108: Polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2009 Oct;114(4):936-949.
Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2008 Mar;89(3): 505-522.
Balen AH. Ovulation induction in the management of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2013 Jul;373(1-2):77-82.
Berridge DL, Winter TC. Saline infusion sonohysterography: technique, indications, and imaging findings. J Ultrasound Med 2004 Jan;23(1):97-112.
Allison SJ, Horrow MM, Kim HY, Lev-Toaff AS. Salineinfused sonohysterography: tips for achieving greater success. Radiographics 2011 Nov-Dec;31(7):1991-2004.
O'Neill MJ. Sonohysterography. Radiol Clin North Am 2003 Jul;41(4):781-797.
Bonnamy L, Marret H, Perrotin F, Body G, Berger C, Lansac J. Sonohysterography: a prospective survey of results and complications in 81 patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002 Apr;102(1):42-47.
Lindheim SR, Adsuar N, Kushner DM, Pritts EA, Olive DL. Sonohysterography: a valuable tool in evaluating the female pelvis. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003 Nov;58(11):770-784.
Lindheim SR, Sprague C, Winter TC. Hysterosalpingography and sonohysterography: lessons in technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006 Jan;186(1):24-29.
Jeanty P, Besnard S, Arnold A, Turner C, Crum P. Air-contrast sonohysterography as a first step assessment of tubal patency. J Ultrasound Med 2000 Aug;19(8):519-527.