Aim: To study the prevalence of orofacial manifestations in leukemic children undergoing treatment and to correlate these manifestations with various stages of chemotherapy.
Materials and methods: A prospective noninvasive study comprising 43 acute lymphocytic leukemic pediatric patients at various stages of therapy. They were examined on day of their each blood examination, and lesions were recorded on a self-designed pro forma. A total of 133 observations were recorded by a single observer. The treatment was divided into the phase of induction, consolidation, maintenance, and relapse.
Results: The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 10.1. There were 24 males and 19 females in this study, aged between 3 and 13 years. The common oral lesions seen were dental caries, lymphadenopathy (86.04%), pallor (65.11%), ulcers (13.95%), mucositis (16.27%), gingival enlargement, hemorrhages (20.93%), candidiasis, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, xerostomia (44.18%), paresthesia, and tooth mobility. Herpes simplex virus infection was seen only during induction and consolidation phases. Ulcers were seen during all phases of therapy.
Clinical significance: Orofacial manifestations may be seen as the first sign of leukemia and a dentist may play a significant role in the diagnosis of the disease per se. This study highlights not only about commonly occurring lesions but also their variation during various phases of therapy. To the best of our knowledge, no study has such an extensive reporting of orofacial manifestations of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patients under treatment.
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