Citation Information :
Cavalcante DD, Fonteles CS, Ribeiro TR, Kurita LM, Pimenta AV. Mandibular Regional Odontodysplasia in an 8-year-old Boy showing Teeth Disorders, Gubernaculum Tracts, and Altered Bone Fractal Pattern. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2018; 11 (2):128-134.
Regional odontodysplasia (RO) is a rare nonhereditary developmental condition usually affecting maxilla and female patients. A few number of articles have used the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to describe imaging findings in RO. Thus, this article aims to report unusual imaging findings in a Brazilian child who presented with mandibular RO. A healthy 8-year-old boy was referred for evaluation of an anterior mandibular gingival enlargement. Radiographically, all right mandibular teeth showed wide pulp chambers and shortened roots with thin dentinal walls and open apices, featuring a “ghost teeth” appearance, which indicated a diagnosis of RO. Missing teeth and altered radiopacity were observed. Cone beam computed tomography provided great insight into RO, allowing to identify gubernaculum tracts (GTs) associated with RO teeth. Fractal analysis of the bone surrounding RO teeth revealed an altered trabecular pattern.
Clinical significance: This case describes a rare developmental teeth-related pathology in a boy who showed unusual features on imaging exams. The CBCT provided the observation of RO tooth-related GTs, probably a new finding added to the international literature regarding RO, as well as the pulp chamber volume characterization of an affected tooth not published yet. In addition, it was observed an altered fractal pattern of the mandibular bone adjacent to RO teeth, which has not been described to date.
Laganà G, Venza N, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Fabi F, Danesi C, Cozza P. Dental anomalies: prevalence and associations between them in a large sample of non-orthodontic subjects, a cross-sectional study. BMC Oral Health 2017 Mar;17(1):62.
Luder HU. Malformations of the tooth root in humans. Front Physiol 2015 Oct;27(6):307.
Mathew A, Dauravu LM, Reddy SN, Kumar KR, Venkataramana V. Ghost teeth: regional odontodysplasia of maxillary first molar associated with eruption disorders in a 10-year-old girl. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2015 Aug;7(Suppl 2):S800-S803.
Slootweg PJ, Meuwissen PR. Regional odontodysplasia in epidermal nevus syndrome. J Oral Pathol 1985 Mar;14(3): 256-262.
Prakash SM, Gupta S, Kamarthi N, Goel S. Inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus and regional odontodysplasia: a rare sorority. Indian J Dent 2015 Oct-Dec;6(4):203-206.
Russell K, Yacobi R. Generalized odontodysplasia concomitant with mild hypophosphatasia—a case report. J Can Dent Assoc 1993 Feb;59(2):187-190.
Dahllöf G, Lindskog S, Theorell K, Ussisoo R. Concomitant regional odontodysplasia and hydrocephalus. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1987 Mar;63(3):354-357.
Damasceno JX, Couto JL, Alves KS, Chaves CM Jr, Costa FW, Pimenta Ade M, Fonteles CS. Generalized odontodysplasia in a 5-year-old patient with Hallermann-Streiff syndrome: clinical aspects, cone beam computed tomography findings, and conservative clinical approach. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2014 Aug;118(2):e58-e64.
Reade PC, Radden BG, Barke JJ. Regional odontodysplasia. A review and a report of two cases. Aust Dent J 1974 Jun;19(3):152-161.
Lustmann J, Ulmansky M. Structural changes in odontodysplasia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1976 Feb;41(2): 193-202.
Crawford PJ, Aldred MJ. Regional odontodysplasia: a bibliography. J Oral Pathol Med 1989 May;18(5):251-263.
Al-Tuwirqi A, Lambie D, Seow WK. Regional odontodysplasia: literature review and report of an unusual case located in the mandible. Pediatr Dent 2014 Jan;36(1):62-67.
Jahanimoghadam F, Pishbin L, Rad M. Clinical, radiographic, and histologic evaluation of regional odontodysplasia: a case report with 5-year follow-up. J Dent (Shiraz) 2016 Jun;17(2): 159-163.
Spini TH, Sargenti-Neto S, Cardoso SV, Souza KC, de Souza SO, de Faria PR, Loyola AM. Progressive dental development in regional odontodysplasia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2007 Sep;104(3):e40-e45.
Rashidian A, Afsharian Zadeh M, Azarshab M, Zarrabian T. Regional odontodysplasia: report of a case. J Dent (Shiraz) 2013 Dec;14(4):197-200.
Ansari G, Reid JS, Fung DE, Creanor SL. Regional odontodysplasia: report of four cases. Int J Paediatr Dent 1997 Jun;7(2):107-113.
Babu NS, Smriti RJ, Pratima DB. Regional odontodysplasia: report of an unusual case involving mandibular arch. Contemp Clin Dent 2015 Apr-Jun;6(2):237-239.
Matsuyama J, Tanaka R, Iizawa F, Sano T, Kinoshita-Kawano S, Hayashi-Sakai S, Mitomi T. Clinical and radiographic findings and usefulness of computed tomographic assessment in two children with regional odontodysplasia. Case Rep Dent 2014 Aug;2014:764393.
White SC, Rudolph DJ. Alterations of the trabecular pattern of the jaws in patients with osteoporosis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1999 Nov;88(5):628-635.
Zegarelli EV, Kutscher AH, Applebaum E, Archard HO. Odontodysplasia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1963 Feb;16:187-193.
Tervonen SA, Stratmann U, Mokrys K, Reichart PA. Regional odontodysplasia: a review of the literature and report of four cases. Clin Oral Investig 2004 Jun;8(2):45-51.
van der Wal JE, Rittersma J, Baart JA, van der Waal I. Regional odontodysplasia: report of three cases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1993 Dec;22(6):356-358.
Ibrahim Mostafa M, Samir Taha N, Ismail Mehrez MA. Generalised versus regional odontodysplasia: diagnosis, transitional management, and long-term follow-up—a report of 2 cases. Case Rep Dent 2013 Feb;2013:519704.
Ganguly R, Ramesh A. Regional odontodysplasia: a case of progressive tooth development. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2012 Apr-Jun;30(2):176-178.
Gerlach RF, Jorge J Jr, de Almeida OP, Coletta RD, Zaia AA. Regional odontodysplasia. Report of two cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1998 Mar;85(3):308-313.
Carollo DA, Hoffman RL, Brodie AG. Histology and function of the dental gubernacular cord. Angle Orthod 1971 Oct;41(4):300-307.
Nishida I, Oda M, Tanaka T, Kito S, Seta Y, Yada N, Fujita Y, Saeki K, Morikawa K, Matsumoto-Takeda S, et al. Detection and imaging characteristics of the gubernacular tract in children on cone beam and multidetector computed tomography. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2015 Aug;120(2):e109-e117.
Ide F, Mishima K, Kikuchi K, Horie N, Yamachika S, Satomura K, Shimoyama T, Sakashita H, Saito I, Kusama K. Development and growth of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor related to formation and eruption of teeth. Head Neck Pathol 2011 Jun;5(2):123-132.
Oda M, Miyamoto I, Nishida I, Tanaka T, Kito S, Seta Y, Yada N, Saeki K, Matsumoto-Takeda S, Wakasugi-Sato N, et al. A spatial association between odontomas and the gubernaculum tracts. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2016 Jan;121(1):91-95.
Ringer E, Kolokythas A. Bone margin analysis for benign odontogenic tumors. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 2017 Aug;29(3):293-300.
Ge ZP, Yang P, Li G, Zhang JZ, Ma XC. Age estimation based on pulp cavity/chamber volume of 13 types of tooth from cone beam computed tomography images. Int J Legal Med 2016 Jul;130(4):1159-1167.
Ge ZP, Ma RH, Li G, Zhang JZ, Ma XC. Age estimation based on pulp chamber volume of first molars from cone-beam computed tomography images. Forensic Sci Int 2015 Aug;253:133. e1-133.e7.
Villoria EM, Lenzi AR, Soares RV, Souki BQ, Sigurdsson A, Marques AP, Fidel SR. Post-processing open-source software for the CBCT monitoring of periapical lesions healing following endodontic treatment: technical report of two cases. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2017 Jan;46(1):20160293.
Cevidanes LH, Ruellas AC, Jomier J, Nguyen T, Pieper S, Budin F, Styner M, Paniagua B. Incorporating 3-dimensional models in online articles. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2015 May;147(5 Suppl):S195-S204.
Cevidanes LH, Styner M, Proffit WR. Three-dimensional superimposition of the skull base for the longitudinal evaluation of the effects of growth and of treatment. Orthod Fr 2009 Dec;80(4):347-357.
Maber M, Liversidge HM, Hector MP. Accuracy of age estimation of radiographic methods using developing teeth. Forensic Sci Int 2006 May;159(Suppl 1):S68-S73.
Nolla CM. The development of the permanent teeth. J Dent Child 1960 Nov;27(4):254-266.
Kaissi AA, Handelbauer A, Klaushofer K, Grill F. Middiaphyseal endosteal thickening with subsequent medullary narrowing in a patient with Hallermann-Streiff syndrome. J Clin Med Res 2011 Dec;3(6):328-330.
Arsan B, Köse TE, Çene E, Özcan Ý. Assessment of the trabecular structure of mandibular condyles in patients with temporomandibular disorders using fractal analysis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2017 Mar;123(3): 382-391.
Kavitha MS, An SY, An CH, Huh KH, Yi WJ, Heo MS, Lee SS, Choi SC. Texture analysis of mandibular cortical bone on digital dental panoramic radiographs for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean women. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2015 Mar;119(3):346-356.
Ergün S, Saraçoglu A, Güneri P, Ozpinar B. Application of fractal analysis in hyperparathyroidism. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2009 Jul;38(5):281-288.
Demirbaþ AK, Ergün S, Güneri P, Aktener BO, Boyacioðlu H. Mandibular bone changes in sickle cell anemia: fractal analysis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008 Jul;106(1):e41-e48.
Gumussoy I, Miloglu O, Cankaya E, Bayrakdar IS. Fractal properties of the trabecular pattern of the mandible in chronic renal failure. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2016 May;45(5):20150389.
Apolinário AC, Sindeaux R, de Souza Figueiredo PT, Guimarães AT, Acevedo AC, Castro LC, de Paula AP, de Paula LM, de Melo NS, Leite AF. Dental panoramic indices and fractal dimension measurements in osteogenesis imperfecta children under pamidronate treatment. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2016 Mar;45(4):20150400.
Gerber L, Otgonsuren M, Mishra A, Escheik C, Birerdinc A, Stepanova M, Younossi ZM. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with low level of physical activity: a population-based study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2012 Oct;36(8):772-781.
Kistler KD, Brunt EM, Clark JM, Diehl AM, Sallis JF, Schwimmer JB; NASH CRN Research Group. Physical activity recommendations, exercise intensity, and histological severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2011 Mar;106(3):460-468.
Ghevariya V, Sandar N, Patel K, Ghevariya N, Shah R, Aron J, Anand S. Knowing what's out there: awareness of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Front Med (Lausanne) 2014 Mar;1:4.
Leung CM, Lai LSW, Wong WH, Chan KH, Luk YW, Lai JY, Yeung YW, Hui WM. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: an expanding problem with low levels of awareness in Hong Kong. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009 Nov;24(11):1786-1790.
Grattagliano I, D'Ambrosio G, Palmieri VO, Moschetta A, Palasciano G, Portincasa P; “Steatostop Project” Group. Improving nonalcoholic fatty liver disease management by general practitioners: a critical evaluation and impact of an educational training program. J Gastrointest Liver Dis 2008 Dec;17(4):389-394.
Kallman JB, Arsalla A, Park V, Dhungel S, Bhatia P, Haddad D, Wheeler A, Younossi ZM. Screening for hepatitis B, C and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a survey of communitybased physicians. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2009 May; 29(9):1019-1024.
Singh SP, Misra B, Misra D, Pati GK, Singh A, Kar SK, Panigrahi MK, Meher C, Agrawal O. P841 Awareness and opinion of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients about obesity and its consequences. J Hepatol 2014 Apr;60(1):S352.
Tuomilehto J, Lindström J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Louheranta A, Rastas M, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 2001 May;344(18):1343-1350.
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002 Feb;346(6):393-403.
Bae JC, Suh S, Park SE, Rhee EJ, Park CY, Oh KW, Park SW, Kim SW, Hur KY, Kim JH, et al. Regular exercise is associated with a reduction in the risk of NAFLD and decreased liver enzymes in individuals with NAFLD independent of obesity in Korean adults. PLoS One 2012 Oct;7(10):e46819.
Perseghin G, Lattuada G, De Cobelli F, Ragogna F, Ntali G, Esposito A, Belloni E, Canu T, Terruzzi I, Scifo P, et al. Habitual physical activity is associated with intrahepatic fat content in humans. Diabetes Care 2007 Mar;30(3):683-688.
Lawlor DA, Sat tar N, Smith GD, Ebrahim S. The associations of physical activity and adiposity with alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase. Am J Epidemiol 2005 Jun;161(11):1081-1088.
Zelber-Sagi S, Nitzan-Kaluski D, Goldsmith R, Webb M, Zvibel I, Goldiner I, Blendis L, Halpern Z, Oren R. Role of leisuretime physical activity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based study. Hepatology 2008 Dec;48(6):1791-1798.
Dalle Grave R, Calugi S, Centis E, El Ghoch M, Marchesini G. Cognitive-behavioral strategies to increase the adherence to exercise in the management of obesity. J Obesity 2011 Oct;2011:348293.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The practical guide: identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health; 2000.
Trovato FM, Martines GF, Brischetto D, Catalano D, Musumeci G, Trovato GM. Fatty liver disease and lifestyle in youngsters: diet, food intake frequency, exercise, sleep shortage and fashion. Liver Int 2016 Mar;36(3):427-433.
Park HS, Jang JE, Ko MS, Woo SH, Kim BJ, Kim HS, Park HS, Park IS, Koh EH, Lee KU. Statins increase mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in the liver and prevent non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice. Diabetes Metab J 2016 Oct;40(5):376-385.
Athyros VG, Boutari C, Stavropoulos K, Anagnostis P, Imprialos KP, Doumas M, Karagiannis A. Statins: an underappreciated asset for the prevention and the treatment of NAFLD or NASH and the related cardiovascular risk. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2017 Jun;15:1-28.
Kostapanos MS, Kei A, Elisaf MS. Current role of fenofibrate in the prevention and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. World J Hepatol 2013 Sep;5(9):470-478.
Shiri-Sverdlov R, Wouters K, van Gorp PJ, Gijbels MJ, Noel B, Buffat L, Staels B, Maeda N, van Bilsen M, Hofker MH. Early diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in APOE2 knock-in mice and its prevention by fibrates. J Hepatol 2006 Apr;44(4):732-741.
Brandi G, De Lorenzo S, Candela M, Pantaleo MA, Bellentani S, Tovoli F, Saccoccio G, Biasco G. Microbiota, NASH, HCC and the potential role of probiotics. Carcinogenesis 2017 Mar;38(3):231-240.
Anderson EL, Howe LD, Fraser A, Callaway MP, Sattar N, Day S, Tilling K, Lawlor DA. Weight trajectories through infancy and childhood and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescence: the ALSPAC study. J Hepatol 2014 Sep;61(3):626-632.
Ayonrinde OT, Olynyk JK, Marsh JA, Beilin LJ, Mori TA, Oddy WH, Adams LA. Childhood adiposity trajectories and risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescents. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015 Jan;30(1):163-171.
Sandboge S, Perala MM, Salonen MK, Blomstedt PA, Osmond C, Kajantie E, Barker DJ, Eriksson JG. Early growth and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adulthood-the NAFLD liver fat score and equation applied on the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Ann Med 2013 Sep;45(5-6):430-437.
Zimmermann E, Gamborg M, Holst C, Baker JL, Sørensen TI, Berentzen TL. Body mass index in school-aged children and the risk of routinely diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adulthood: a prospective study based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. BMJ Open 2015 May;5(4):e006998.
Reece EA, Hagay Z, Roberts AB, DeGennaro N, Homko CJ, Connolly-Diamond M, Sherwin R, Tamborlane WV, Diamond MP. Fetal Doppler and behavioral responses during hypoglycemia induced with the insulin clamp technique in pregnant diabetic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995 Jan;172(1 Pt 1):151-155.
Patrick J, Campbell K, Carmichael L, Natale R, Richardson B. Patterns of gross fetal body movements over 24-hour observation intervals during the last 10 weeks of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 Feb;142(4):363-371.
Ornoy A, Ratzon N, Greenbaum C, Peretz E, Soriano D, Dulitzky M. Neurobehavior of school age children born to diabetic mothers. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1998 Sep;79(2):F94-F99.
Wolf, A. Developmental evaluation on early school age children born to gestational diabetic mothers. Israel: Hebrew University; 1997.
Mulder EJ, Leiblum DM, Visser GH. Fetal breathing movements in late diabetic pregnancy: relationship to fetal heart rate patterns and Braxton Hicks’ contractions. Early Hum Dev 1995 Nov;43(3):225-232.
Schulte FJ, Michaelis R, Nolte R, Albert G, Parl U, Lasson U. Brain and behavioral maturation in newborn infants of diabetic mothers. I. Nerve conduction and EEG patterns. Neuropadiatrie 1969 Jan-Jul;1(1):24-35.
Devoe LD, Youssef AA, Castillo RA, Croom CS. Fetal biophysical activities in third-trimester pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994 Aug;171(2):298-303.
Dierker LJ Jr, Pillay S, Sorokin Y, Rosen MG. The change in fetal activity periods in diabetic and nondiabetic pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 May;143(2):181-185.
Doherty NN, Hepper PG. Habituation in fetuses of diabetic mothers. Early Hum Dev 2000 Aug;59(2):85-93.
Kainer F, Prechtl HF, Engele H, Einspieler C. Assessment of the quality of general movements in fetuses and infants of women with type-1 diabetes mellitus. Early Hum Dev 1997 Nov;50(1):13-25.
Mulder EJ, O'Brien MJ, Lems YL, Visser GH, Prechtl HF. Body and breathing movements in near-term fetuses and newborn infants of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1990 Nov;24(2):131-152.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. I. Early growth patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):91-106.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. II. Emergence of specific movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):107-115.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Impact of early growth delay on subsequent fetal growth and functional development: a study on diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1992 Dec;31(2):91-95.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Bekedam DJ, Prechtl HF. Emergence of behavioral states in fetuses of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1987 Jul;15(4):231-251.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Morssink LP, de Vries JI. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. III. First trimester quantity of fetal movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):117-133.
Aberg A, Westbom L, Kallen B. Congenital malformations among infants whose mothers had gestational diabetes or preexisting diabetes. Early Hum Dev 2001 Mar;61(2):85-95.
Deregnier RA, Nelson CA, Thomas KM, Wewerka S, Georgieff MK. Neurophysiologic evaluation of auditory recognition memory in healthy newborn infants and infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 2000 Dec;137(6):777-784.
Nelson CA, Wewerka S, Thomas KM, Tribby-Walbridge S, deRegnier R, Georgieff M. Neurocognitive sequelae of infants of diabetic mothers. Behav Neurosci 2000 Oct;114(5):950-956.
Reece EA, Homko CJ. Infant of the diabetic mother. Semin Perinatol 1994 Oct;18(5):459-469.
Reece EA, Homko CJ. Why do diabetic women deliver malformed infants? Clin Obstet Gynecol 2000 Mar;43(1):32-45.
Rizzo T, Metzger BE, Burns WJ, Burns K. Correlations between antepartum maternal metabolism and intelligence of offspring. N Engl J Med 1991 Sep;325(13):911-916.
Rizzo TA, Metzger BE, Dooley SL, Cho NH. Early malnutrition and child neurobehavioral development: insights from the study of children of diabetic mothers. Child Dev 1997 Feb;68(1):26-38.
Schwartz R, Teramo KA. Effects of diabetic pregnancy on the fetus and newborn. Semin Perinatol 2000 Apr;24(2):120-135.
Vaarasmaki MS, Hartikainen A, Anttila M, Pramila S, Koivisto M. Factors predicting peri- and neonatal outcome in diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 2000 Jul;59(1):61-70.
Robertson SS, Dierker LJ. Fetal cyclic motor activity in diabetic pregnancies: sensitivity to maternal blood glucose. Dev Psychobiol 2003 Jan;42(1):9-16.
Accardo PJ, Blondis TA, Whitman BY. Disorders of attention and activity level in a referral population. Pediatrics 1990 Mar;85(3 Pt 2):426-431.
Ornoy A, Uriel L, Tennenbaum A. Inattention, hyperactivity and speech delay at 2-4 years of age as a predictor for ADDADHD syndrome. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 1993;30(3):155-163.
Smyth TR. Impaired motor skill (clumsiness) in otherwise normal children: a review. Child Care Health Dev 1992 Sep-Oct;18(5):283-300.
Petersen MB, Pedersen SA, Greisen G, Pedersen JF, Mølsted- Pedersen L. Early growth delay in diabetic pregnancy: relation to psychomotor development at age 4. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988 Feb;296(6622):598-600.
Sells CJ, Robinson NM, Brown Z, Knopp RH. Long-term developmental follow-up of infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 1994 Jul;125(1):S9-S17.
Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehaviour in high risk pregnancies. DSJUOG 2012 Apr-Jun;6(2):132-147.
Talic A, Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Stanojevic M, Predojevic M, Kadic AS, Di Renzo GC. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal behavior in high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011 Jul;24(7):948-954.
Bekedam DJ, Visser GH, de Vries JJ, Prechtl HF. Motor behaviour in the growth retarded fetus. Early Hum Dev 1985 Nov;12(2):155-165.
Cioni G, Prechtl HF. Preterm and early postterm motor behaviour in low-risk premature infants. Early Hum Dev 1990 Sep;23(3):159-191.
Seme-Ciglenecki P. Predictive value of assessment of general movements for neurological development of highrisk preterm infants: comparative study. Croat Med J 2003 Dec;44(6):721-727.
Abo-Yaqoub S, Kurjak A, Mohammed AB, Shadad A, Abdel-Maaboud M. The role of 4-D ultrasonography in prenatal assessment of fetal neurobehaviour and prediction of neurological outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Mar;25(3):231-236.
Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, Theodoridis TD, Papastergiou M, Assimakopoulos E, Tarlatzis BC. Neurodevelopmental fetal assessment using KANET scoring system in low and high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Mar;26(4):363-368.
Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, Legro RS, Balen AH, Lobo R, Carmina E, Chang J, Yildiz BO, Laven JS, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril 2012 Jan;97(1):28-38.e25
Sirmans SM, Pate KA. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Epidemiol 2014; 6:1-13.
Fauser BC, Diedrich K, Bouchard P, Domínguez F, Matzuk M, Franks S, Hamamah S, Simón C, Devroey P, Ezcurra D, et al. Contemporary genetic technologies and female reproduction. Human Reproduction Update 2011 Nov;17(6):829-847.
Balen A, Conway G, Kaltsas G. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the spectrum of the disorder in 1741 patients. Hum Reprod 1995 Aug;10(8):2107-2111.
Azziz R, Sanchez L, Knochenhauer ES, Moran C, Lazenby J, Stephens KC, Taylor K, Boots LR. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004 Feb;89(2):453-462.
Wild S, Pierpoint T, McKeigue P, Jacobs H. Cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome at longterm follow-up: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000 May;52(5):595-600.
Hollinrake E, Abreu A, Maifeld M, Van Voorhis BJ, Dokras A. Increased risk of depressive disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2007 Jun;87(6): 1369-1376.
Zawadski JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome. In: Givens JHF, Merriman G, editors. The polycystic ovary syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992. p. 377-384.
Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25.
Azziz R, Carmina E, DeWailly D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Escobar-Morreale HF, Futterweit W, Janssen OE, Legro RS, Norman RJ, Taylor AE, et al. Position statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-4245.
Lujan ME, Jarrett BY, Brooks ED, Reines JK, Peppin AK, Muhn N, Haider E, Pierson RA, Chizen DR. Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume. Hum Reprod 2013 May;28(5):1361-1368.
Badawy A, Elnashar A. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Womens Health 2011 Feb;3:25-35.
ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No 108: Polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2009 Oct;114(4):936-949.
Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2008 Mar;89(3): 505-522.
Balen AH. Ovulation induction in the management of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2013 Jul;373(1-2):77-82.
Berridge DL, Winter TC. Saline infusion sonohysterography: technique, indications, and imaging findings. J Ultrasound Med 2004 Jan;23(1):97-112.
Allison SJ, Horrow MM, Kim HY, Lev-Toaff AS. Salineinfused sonohysterography: tips for achieving greater success. Radiographics 2011 Nov-Dec;31(7):1991-2004.
O'Neill MJ. Sonohysterography. Radiol Clin North Am 2003 Jul;41(4):781-797.
Bonnamy L, Marret H, Perrotin F, Body G, Berger C, Lansac J. Sonohysterography: a prospective survey of results and complications in 81 patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002 Apr;102(1):42-47.
Lindheim SR, Adsuar N, Kushner DM, Pritts EA, Olive DL. Sonohysterography: a valuable tool in evaluating the female pelvis. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003 Nov;58(11):770-784.
Lindheim SR, Sprague C, Winter TC. Hysterosalpingography and sonohysterography: lessons in technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006 Jan;186(1):24-29.
Jeanty P, Besnard S, Arnold A, Turner C, Crum P. Air-contrast sonohysterography as a first step assessment of tubal patency. J Ultrasound Med 2000 Aug;19(8):519-527.