Aim: To determine the perception of Indian dental professionals about prevalence, severity, and etiological factors of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH).
Materials and methods: An online survey was mailed to dental professionals encompassing various questions regarding etiology, diagnosis, prevalence, and management of MIH.
Results: More than 90% of the respondents encounter teeth with hypomineralization in their practice, with less than half of them encountering such teeth on a monthly basis. Among these more than one-third find it difficult to manage one or the other aspect of MIH. The etiology was found to be varying as per the respondents.
Conclusion: Molar incisor hypomineralization is a common condition encountered by dental professionals with no apparent consensus regarding the anticipated prevalence, severity, and etiology of this condition. Knowledge of clinicians’ level of perception could be an incentive for pediatric dentists to become more acquainted with MIH by conducting research into its different aspects.
Koch G, Hallonsten AL, Ludvigsson N, Hansson BO, Holst A, Ullbro C. Epidemiologic study of idiopathic enamel hypomineralisation in permanent teeth of Swedish children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1987 Oct;15(5):279-285.
Jalevik B, Noren JG. Enamel hypomineralization of permanent first molars: a morphological study and survey of possible aetiological factors. Int J Paediatr Dent 2000 Dec;10(4):278-289.
Fearne J, Anderson P, Davis GR. A 3D X-ray microscopic study of the extent of variations in enamel density in first permanent molars with idiopathic enamel hypomineralization. Br Dent J 2004 May;196(10):634-638.
Leppaniemi A, Lukinmaa PL, Alaluusua S. Nonfluoride hypomineralizations in the permanent first molars and their impact on the treatment need. Caries Res 2001 Jan-Feb;35(1):36-40.
van Amerongen WE, Kreulen CM. Cheese molars: a pilot study of the etiology of hypocalcifications in first permanent molars. J Dent Child 1995 Jul-Aug;62(4):266-269.
Weerheijm KL, Groen HJ, Beentjes VE, Poorterman JH. Prevalence of cheese molars in eleven-year-old Dutch children. ASDC J Dent Child 2001 Jul-Aug;68(4):259-262.
Weerheijm KL, Jälevik B, Alaluusua S. Molar-incisor hypomineralisation. Caries Res 2001 Sep-Oct;35(5):390-391.
Jalevik B, Klingberg GA. Dental treatment, dental fear and behavior management problems in children with severe enamel hypo mineralization of their permanent first molars. Int J Paediatr Dent 2002 Jan;12(1):24-32.
William V, Messer LB, Burrow MF. Molar incisor hypomineralization: review and recommendations for clinical management. Pediatr Dent 2006 May-Jun;28(3):224-232.
Kodaka T, Debari K, Kuroiwa M. Mineral content of the innermost enamel in erupted human teeth. J Electron Microsc 1991 Feb;40(1):19-23.
Kodaka T, Debari K, Yamada M, Kuroiwa M. Correlation between micro-hardness and mineral content in sound human enamel (short communication). Caries Res 1992;26(2):139-141.
Fearne J, Anderson P, Davis GR. 3D X-ray microscopic study of the extent of variations in enamel density in first permanent molars with idiopathic enamel hypomineralisation. Br Dent J 2004 May;196(10):634-638.
Jälevik B, Odelius H, Dietz W, Norén J. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray microanalysis of hypomineralized enamel in human permanent first molars. Arch Oral Biol 2001 Mar;46(3):239-247.
Xie ZH, Mahoney EK, Kilpatrick NM, Swain MV, Hoffman M. On the structure-property relationship of sound and hypomineralized enamel. Acta Biomater 2007 Nov;3(6):865-872.
Cho SY, Ki Y, Chu V. Molar incisor hypomineralization in Hong Kong Chinese children. Int J Paediatr Dent 2008 Sep;18(5):348-352.
Wogelius P, Haubek D, Poulsen S. Prevalence and distribution of demarcated opacities in permanent 1st molars and incisors in 6 to 8-year-old Danish children. Acta Odontol Scand 2008 Feb;66(1):58-64.
Soviero V, Haubek D, Trindade C, Matta T, Poulsen S. Prevalence and distribution of demarcated opacities and their squeals in permanent first molars and incisor in 7 to 13-yearold Brazilian children. Acta Odontol Scand 2009;67(3):170-175.
Weerheijm KL, Mejàre I. Molar incisor hypomineralization: a questionnaire inventory of its occurrence in member countries of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD). Int J Paediatr Dent 2003 Nov;13(6):411-416.
Crombie FA, Manton DJ, Weerheijm KL, Kilpatrick NM. Molar incisor hypomineralization: a survey of members of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Paediatric Dentistry. Aust Dent J 2008 Jun;53(2):160-166.
Ghanim A, Morgan M, Marino R, Manton D, Bailey D. Perception of molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) by Iraqi Dental Academics. Int J Paediatr Dent 2011 Jul;21(4):261-270.
Da Costa-Silva CM, Ambrosano GM, Jeremias F, De Souza JF, Mialhe FL. Increase in severity of molar-incisor hypomineralization and its relationship with the colour of enamel opacity: a prospective cohort study. Int J Paediatr Dent 2011 Sep;21(5):333-341.
Suckling GW, Nelson DG, Patel MJ. Macroscopic and scanning electron microscopic appearance and hardness values of developmental defects in human permanent tooth enamel. Adv Dent Res 1989 Sep;3(2):219-233.
Farah R, Drummond B, Swain M, Williams S. Linking the clinical presentation of molar-incisor hypomineralisation to its mineral density. Int J Paediatr Dent 2010 Sep;20(5):353-360.
Singh G, Kaur G, Mengi V, Singh B. A study of dental caries among school children in rural area of Jammu. Ann Dental Spec 2014 Jan-Mar;2(1):1-5.
Hanganu C, Murariu A. Caries risk assessment in dental students from Iasi, Romania. OHDMBSC 2008;7(3):42-47.
Peker I, Mangal T, Erten H, Alp G, Avci E, Akca G. Evaluation of caries risk in a young adult population using a computerbased risk assessment model (cariogram). J Dental Sci 2012 Jun;7(2):99-104.
Morinushi T, Lopatin DE, Tanaka H. The relationship between dental caries in the primary dentition and anti-S. mutans serum antibodies in children with Down syndrome. J Clin Pediatr Dent 1995 Summer;19(4):279-283.
Patil YB, Hegde-Shetiya S, Kakodkar PV, Shirahatti R. Evaluation of a preventive program based on caries risk among mentally challenged children using the cariogram model. Community Dent Health 2011 Dec;28(4):286-291.
Loesche WJ. Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay. Microbiol Rev 1986 Dec;50(4):353-380.
Hamada S, Slade HD. Biology, immunology, and cariogenicity of Streptococcus mutans. Microbiol Rev 1980 Jun;44(2):331-384.
Kohler B, Andreen I, Jonsson B. The earlier the colonization by mutans streptococci, the higher the caries prevalence at 4 years of age. Oral Microbiol Immunol 1988 Mar;3(1):102-108.
Kohler B, Andreen I, Johnsson B. The effects of caries preventive measures in mothers on dental caries and the oral presence of bacteria Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli in their infants. Arch Oral Biol 1984;29(11):879.
Kohler B, Bratthall D, Krasse B. Preventive measures in mothers influence the establishment of streptococcus mutans in their infants. Arch Oral Biol 1983;28(3):285.
Siqueira WL. Electrolyte concentrations in saliva of children aged 6-10 years. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2004 Jul;98(1):76-79.
Kuriakose S, Sundaresan C, Mathai V, Khosla E, Gaffoor F. A comparative study of salivary buffering capacity, flow rate, resting pH, and salivary immunoglobulin A in children with rampant caries and caries-resistant children. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2013;31(2):69-73.
Animireddy D, Bekkem VTR, Vallala P, Kotha SB, Ankireddy S, Mohammad N. Evaluation of pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate levels of saliva in caries-free, minimal caries and nursing caries children: an in vivo study. Contemp Clin Dent 2014 Jul;5(3):324-328.
Pascual-Ramos V, Hernandez C, Soto-Rojas AE, Celis Aguilar E, Sanchez-Guerrero J. Association between dental caries and pneumonia in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 2006 Oct;33(10):1996-2002.
Singh SP, Singh A, Misra D, Misra B, Pati GK, Panigrahi MK, Kar SK, Bhuyan P, Pattnaik K, Meher C, et al. Risk factors associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Indians: a case-control study. J Clin Exp Hepatol 2015 Dec;5(4):295-302.
Charlton M, Krishnan A, Viker K, Sanderson S, Cazanave S, McConico A, Masuoko H, Gores G. Fast food diet mouse: novel small animal model of NASH with ballooning, progressive fibrosis, and high physiological fidelity to the human condition. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2011 Nov;301(5):G825-G834.
Assy N, Nasser G, Kamayse I, Nseir W, Beniashvili Z, Djibre A, Grosovski M. Soft drink consumption linked with fatty liver in the absence of traditional risk factors. Can J Gastroenterol 2008 Oct;22(10):811-816.
Ouyang X, Cirillo P, Sautin Y, McCall S, Bruchette JL, Diehl AM, Johnson RJ, Abdelmalek MF. Fructose consumption as a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Hepatol 2008 Jun;48(6):993-999.
Casiglia E, Spolaore P, Ginocchio G, Ambrosio G. Unexpected effects of coffee consumption on liver enzymes. Eur J Epidemiol 1993 May;9(3):293-297.
Modi AA, Feldman JJ, Park Y, Kleiner DE, Everhart JE, Liang TJ, Hoofnagle JH. Increased coffee consumption is associated with reduced hepatic fibrosis. Hepatology 2010 Jan;51(1): 201-209.
Gelatti U, Covol L, Franceschini M, Pirali F, Tagger A, Ribero M, Trevisi P, Martelli C, Nardi G, Donato F; Brescia HCC Study Group. Coffee consumption reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in dependently of its aetiology: a case control study. J Hepatol 2005 Apr;42(4):528-534.
Tverdal A, Skurtveit S. Coffee intake and mortality from liver cirrhosis. Ann Epidemiol 2003 Jul;13(6):419-423.
Gentile CL, Frye MA, Pagliassotti MJ. Fatty acids and the endoplasmic reticulum in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Biofactors 2011 Jan-Feb;37(1):8-16.
Gerber L, Otgonsuren M, Mishra A, Escheik C, Birerdinc A, Stepanova M, Younossi ZM. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with low level of physical activity: a population-based study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2012 Oct;36(8):772-781.
Kistler KD, Brunt EM, Clark JM, Diehl AM, Sallis JF, Schwimmer JB; NASH CRN Research Group. Physical activity recommendations, exercise intensity, and histological severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2011 Mar;106(3):460-468.
Ghevariya V, Sandar N, Patel K, Ghevariya N, Shah R, Aron J, Anand S. Knowing what's out there: awareness of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Front Med (Lausanne) 2014 Mar;1:4.
Leung CM, Lai LSW, Wong WH, Chan KH, Luk YW, Lai JY, Yeung YW, Hui WM. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: an expanding problem with low levels of awareness in Hong Kong. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009 Nov;24(11):1786-1790.
Grattagliano I, D'Ambrosio G, Palmieri VO, Moschetta A, Palasciano G, Portincasa P; “Steatostop Project” Group. Improving nonalcoholic fatty liver disease management by general practitioners: a critical evaluation and impact of an educational training program. J Gastrointest Liver Dis 2008 Dec;17(4):389-394.
Kallman JB, Arsalla A, Park V, Dhungel S, Bhatia P, Haddad D, Wheeler A, Younossi ZM. Screening for hepatitis B, C and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a survey of communitybased physicians. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2009 May; 29(9):1019-1024.
Singh SP, Misra B, Misra D, Pati GK, Singh A, Kar SK, Panigrahi MK, Meher C, Agrawal O. P841 Awareness and opinion of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients about obesity and its consequences. J Hepatol 2014 Apr;60(1):S352.
Tuomilehto J, Lindström J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Louheranta A, Rastas M, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 2001 May;344(18):1343-1350.
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002 Feb;346(6):393-403.
Bae JC, Suh S, Park SE, Rhee EJ, Park CY, Oh KW, Park SW, Kim SW, Hur KY, Kim JH, et al. Regular exercise is associated with a reduction in the risk of NAFLD and decreased liver enzymes in individuals with NAFLD independent of obesity in Korean adults. PLoS One 2012 Oct;7(10):e46819.
Perseghin G, Lattuada G, De Cobelli F, Ragogna F, Ntali G, Esposito A, Belloni E, Canu T, Terruzzi I, Scifo P, et al. Habitual physical activity is associated with intrahepatic fat content in humans. Diabetes Care 2007 Mar;30(3):683-688.
Lawlor DA, Sat tar N, Smith GD, Ebrahim S. The associations of physical activity and adiposity with alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase. Am J Epidemiol 2005 Jun;161(11):1081-1088.
Zelber-Sagi S, Nitzan-Kaluski D, Goldsmith R, Webb M, Zvibel I, Goldiner I, Blendis L, Halpern Z, Oren R. Role of leisuretime physical activity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based study. Hepatology 2008 Dec;48(6):1791-1798.
Dalle Grave R, Calugi S, Centis E, El Ghoch M, Marchesini G. Cognitive-behavioral strategies to increase the adherence to exercise in the management of obesity. J Obesity 2011 Oct;2011:348293.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The practical guide: identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health; 2000.
Trovato FM, Martines GF, Brischetto D, Catalano D, Musumeci G, Trovato GM. Fatty liver disease and lifestyle in youngsters: diet, food intake frequency, exercise, sleep shortage and fashion. Liver Int 2016 Mar;36(3):427-433.
Park HS, Jang JE, Ko MS, Woo SH, Kim BJ, Kim HS, Park HS, Park IS, Koh EH, Lee KU. Statins increase mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in the liver and prevent non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice. Diabetes Metab J 2016 Oct;40(5):376-385.
Athyros VG, Boutari C, Stavropoulos K, Anagnostis P, Imprialos KP, Doumas M, Karagiannis A. Statins: an underappreciated asset for the prevention and the treatment of NAFLD or NASH and the related cardiovascular risk. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2017 Jun;15:1-28.
Kostapanos MS, Kei A, Elisaf MS. Current role of fenofibrate in the prevention and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. World J Hepatol 2013 Sep;5(9):470-478.
Shiri-Sverdlov R, Wouters K, van Gorp PJ, Gijbels MJ, Noel B, Buffat L, Staels B, Maeda N, van Bilsen M, Hofker MH. Early diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in APOE2 knock-in mice and its prevention by fibrates. J Hepatol 2006 Apr;44(4):732-741.
Brandi G, De Lorenzo S, Candela M, Pantaleo MA, Bellentani S, Tovoli F, Saccoccio G, Biasco G. Microbiota, NASH, HCC and the potential role of probiotics. Carcinogenesis 2017 Mar;38(3):231-240.
Anderson EL, Howe LD, Fraser A, Callaway MP, Sattar N, Day S, Tilling K, Lawlor DA. Weight trajectories through infancy and childhood and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescence: the ALSPAC study. J Hepatol 2014 Sep;61(3):626-632.
Ayonrinde OT, Olynyk JK, Marsh JA, Beilin LJ, Mori TA, Oddy WH, Adams LA. Childhood adiposity trajectories and risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescents. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015 Jan;30(1):163-171.
Sandboge S, Perala MM, Salonen MK, Blomstedt PA, Osmond C, Kajantie E, Barker DJ, Eriksson JG. Early growth and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adulthood-the NAFLD liver fat score and equation applied on the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Ann Med 2013 Sep;45(5-6):430-437.
Zimmermann E, Gamborg M, Holst C, Baker JL, Sørensen TI, Berentzen TL. Body mass index in school-aged children and the risk of routinely diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adulthood: a prospective study based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. BMJ Open 2015 May;5(4):e006998.
Reece EA, Hagay Z, Roberts AB, DeGennaro N, Homko CJ, Connolly-Diamond M, Sherwin R, Tamborlane WV, Diamond MP. Fetal Doppler and behavioral responses during hypoglycemia induced with the insulin clamp technique in pregnant diabetic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995 Jan;172(1 Pt 1):151-155.
Patrick J, Campbell K, Carmichael L, Natale R, Richardson B. Patterns of gross fetal body movements over 24-hour observation intervals during the last 10 weeks of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 Feb;142(4):363-371.
Ornoy A, Ratzon N, Greenbaum C, Peretz E, Soriano D, Dulitzky M. Neurobehavior of school age children born to diabetic mothers. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1998 Sep;79(2):F94-F99.
Wolf, A. Developmental evaluation on early school age children born to gestational diabetic mothers. Israel: Hebrew University; 1997.
Mulder EJ, Leiblum DM, Visser GH. Fetal breathing movements in late diabetic pregnancy: relationship to fetal heart rate patterns and Braxton Hicks’ contractions. Early Hum Dev 1995 Nov;43(3):225-232.
Schulte FJ, Michaelis R, Nolte R, Albert G, Parl U, Lasson U. Brain and behavioral maturation in newborn infants of diabetic mothers. I. Nerve conduction and EEG patterns. Neuropadiatrie 1969 Jan-Jul;1(1):24-35.
Devoe LD, Youssef AA, Castillo RA, Croom CS. Fetal biophysical activities in third-trimester pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994 Aug;171(2):298-303.
Dierker LJ Jr, Pillay S, Sorokin Y, Rosen MG. The change in fetal activity periods in diabetic and nondiabetic pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 May;143(2):181-185.
Doherty NN, Hepper PG. Habituation in fetuses of diabetic mothers. Early Hum Dev 2000 Aug;59(2):85-93.
Kainer F, Prechtl HF, Engele H, Einspieler C. Assessment of the quality of general movements in fetuses and infants of women with type-1 diabetes mellitus. Early Hum Dev 1997 Nov;50(1):13-25.
Mulder EJ, O'Brien MJ, Lems YL, Visser GH, Prechtl HF. Body and breathing movements in near-term fetuses and newborn infants of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1990 Nov;24(2):131-152.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. I. Early growth patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):91-106.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. II. Emergence of specific movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):107-115.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Impact of early growth delay on subsequent fetal growth and functional development: a study on diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1992 Dec;31(2):91-95.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Bekedam DJ, Prechtl HF. Emergence of behavioral states in fetuses of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1987 Jul;15(4):231-251.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Morssink LP, de Vries JI. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. III. First trimester quantity of fetal movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):117-133.
Aberg A, Westbom L, Kallen B. Congenital malformations among infants whose mothers had gestational diabetes or preexisting diabetes. Early Hum Dev 2001 Mar;61(2):85-95.
Deregnier RA, Nelson CA, Thomas KM, Wewerka S, Georgieff MK. Neurophysiologic evaluation of auditory recognition memory in healthy newborn infants and infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 2000 Dec;137(6):777-784.
Nelson CA, Wewerka S, Thomas KM, Tribby-Walbridge S, deRegnier R, Georgieff M. Neurocognitive sequelae of infants of diabetic mothers. Behav Neurosci 2000 Oct;114(5):950-956.
Reece EA, Homko CJ. Infant of the diabetic mother. Semin Perinatol 1994 Oct;18(5):459-469.
Reece EA, Homko CJ. Why do diabetic women deliver malformed infants? Clin Obstet Gynecol 2000 Mar;43(1):32-45.
Rizzo T, Metzger BE, Burns WJ, Burns K. Correlations between antepartum maternal metabolism and intelligence of offspring. N Engl J Med 1991 Sep;325(13):911-916.
Rizzo TA, Metzger BE, Dooley SL, Cho NH. Early malnutrition and child neurobehavioral development: insights from the study of children of diabetic mothers. Child Dev 1997 Feb;68(1):26-38.
Schwartz R, Teramo KA. Effects of diabetic pregnancy on the fetus and newborn. Semin Perinatol 2000 Apr;24(2):120-135.
Vaarasmaki MS, Hartikainen A, Anttila M, Pramila S, Koivisto M. Factors predicting peri- and neonatal outcome in diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 2000 Jul;59(1):61-70.
Robertson SS, Dierker LJ. Fetal cyclic motor activity in diabetic pregnancies: sensitivity to maternal blood glucose. Dev Psychobiol 2003 Jan;42(1):9-16.
Accardo PJ, Blondis TA, Whitman BY. Disorders of attention and activity level in a referral population. Pediatrics 1990 Mar;85(3 Pt 2):426-431.
Ornoy A, Uriel L, Tennenbaum A. Inattention, hyperactivity and speech delay at 2-4 years of age as a predictor for ADDADHD syndrome. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 1993;30(3):155-163.
Smyth TR. Impaired motor skill (clumsiness) in otherwise normal children: a review. Child Care Health Dev 1992 Sep-Oct;18(5):283-300.
Petersen MB, Pedersen SA, Greisen G, Pedersen JF, Mølsted- Pedersen L. Early growth delay in diabetic pregnancy: relation to psychomotor development at age 4. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988 Feb;296(6622):598-600.
Sells CJ, Robinson NM, Brown Z, Knopp RH. Long-term developmental follow-up of infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 1994 Jul;125(1):S9-S17.
Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehaviour in high risk pregnancies. DSJUOG 2012 Apr-Jun;6(2):132-147.
Talic A, Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Stanojevic M, Predojevic M, Kadic AS, Di Renzo GC. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal behavior in high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011 Jul;24(7):948-954.
Bekedam DJ, Visser GH, de Vries JJ, Prechtl HF. Motor behaviour in the growth retarded fetus. Early Hum Dev 1985 Nov;12(2):155-165.
Cioni G, Prechtl HF. Preterm and early postterm motor behaviour in low-risk premature infants. Early Hum Dev 1990 Sep;23(3):159-191.
Seme-Ciglenecki P. Predictive value of assessment of general movements for neurological development of highrisk preterm infants: comparative study. Croat Med J 2003 Dec;44(6):721-727.
Abo-Yaqoub S, Kurjak A, Mohammed AB, Shadad A, Abdel-Maaboud M. The role of 4-D ultrasonography in prenatal assessment of fetal neurobehaviour and prediction of neurological outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Mar;25(3):231-236.
Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, Theodoridis TD, Papastergiou M, Assimakopoulos E, Tarlatzis BC. Neurodevelopmental fetal assessment using KANET scoring system in low and high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Mar;26(4):363-368.
Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, Legro RS, Balen AH, Lobo R, Carmina E, Chang J, Yildiz BO, Laven JS, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril 2012 Jan;97(1):28-38.e25
Sirmans SM, Pate KA. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Epidemiol 2014; 6:1-13.
Fauser BC, Diedrich K, Bouchard P, Domínguez F, Matzuk M, Franks S, Hamamah S, Simón C, Devroey P, Ezcurra D, et al. Contemporary genetic technologies and female reproduction. Human Reproduction Update 2011 Nov;17(6):829-847.
Balen A, Conway G, Kaltsas G. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the spectrum of the disorder in 1741 patients. Hum Reprod 1995 Aug;10(8):2107-2111.
Azziz R, Sanchez L, Knochenhauer ES, Moran C, Lazenby J, Stephens KC, Taylor K, Boots LR. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004 Feb;89(2):453-462.
Wild S, Pierpoint T, McKeigue P, Jacobs H. Cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome at longterm follow-up: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000 May;52(5):595-600.
Hollinrake E, Abreu A, Maifeld M, Van Voorhis BJ, Dokras A. Increased risk of depressive disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2007 Jun;87(6): 1369-1376.
Zawadski JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome. In: Givens JHF, Merriman G, editors. The polycystic ovary syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992. p. 377-384.
Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25.
Azziz R, Carmina E, DeWailly D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Escobar-Morreale HF, Futterweit W, Janssen OE, Legro RS, Norman RJ, Taylor AE, et al. Position statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-4245.
Lujan ME, Jarrett BY, Brooks ED, Reines JK, Peppin AK, Muhn N, Haider E, Pierson RA, Chizen DR. Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume. Hum Reprod 2013 May;28(5):1361-1368.
Badawy A, Elnashar A. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Womens Health 2011 Feb;3:25-35.
ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No 108: Polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2009 Oct;114(4):936-949.
Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2008 Mar;89(3): 505-522.
Balen AH. Ovulation induction in the management of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2013 Jul;373(1-2):77-82.
Berridge DL, Winter TC. Saline infusion sonohysterography: technique, indications, and imaging findings. J Ultrasound Med 2004 Jan;23(1):97-112.
Allison SJ, Horrow MM, Kim HY, Lev-Toaff AS. Salineinfused sonohysterography: tips for achieving greater success. Radiographics 2011 Nov-Dec;31(7):1991-2004.
O'Neill MJ. Sonohysterography. Radiol Clin North Am 2003 Jul;41(4):781-797.
Bonnamy L, Marret H, Perrotin F, Body G, Berger C, Lansac J. Sonohysterography: a prospective survey of results and complications in 81 patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002 Apr;102(1):42-47.
Lindheim SR, Adsuar N, Kushner DM, Pritts EA, Olive DL. Sonohysterography: a valuable tool in evaluating the female pelvis. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003 Nov;58(11):770-784.
Lindheim SR, Sprague C, Winter TC. Hysterosalpingography and sonohysterography: lessons in technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006 Jan;186(1):24-29.
Jeanty P, Besnard S, Arnold A, Turner C, Crum P. Air-contrast sonohysterography as a first step assessment of tubal patency. J Ultrasound Med 2000 Aug;19(8):519-527.