International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

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VOLUME 10 , ISSUE 4 ( October-December, 2017 ) > List of Articles


Clinical Evaluation of Bond Failures and Survival of Mandibular Canine-to-canine Bonded Retainers during a 12-year Time Span

Citation Information : Clinical Evaluation of Bond Failures and Survival of Mandibular Canine-to-canine Bonded Retainers during a 12-year Time Span. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017; 10 (4):330-334.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1460

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-12-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; The Author(s).



The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the 3-3 mandibular lingual stainless steel retainer to prevent a relapse of orthodontic treatment during the 12-year time span of the survey.

Materials and methods

Fifty patients with canine-to-canine bonded retainers (placed at least 10 years earlier) were recalled. All patients had been followed up annually during this period. Patients were screened for stability of the retainer and for the condition of hard and soft oral tissues.


None of the patients reported a complete loss of the retainer; 14 patients reported single element partial losses and 13 reported multiple losses. Most partial failures were not perceived by patients, but noted by the orthodontist during the control visit. There was no notable variation of the gingival index occurring in these patients. In two cases patients had caries in the six teeth bonded with the retainer, but never on the lingual side; only in three teeth areas of decalcification in the proximity of bonded sites were reported. All patients showed good compliance with this kind of retention.


The composite adhesive technique allowed a reliable positioning system for directly bonded retainers and did not influence the occurrence of carious lesions or demineralized spots on fixed teeth. Full teeth fixation offered the possibility of stabilizing the irregularity index highlighted in various studies without increasing any side effects on gums and hard tissues.

How to cite this article

Maddalone M, Rota E, Mirabelli L, Venino PM, Porcaro G. Clinical Evaluation of Bond Failures and Survival of Mandibular Canine-to-canine Bonded Retainers during a 12-year Time Span. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(4):330-334.

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