A rare case of birooted primary maxillary central incisor is reported. A 5-year-old male patient reported with carious maxillary primary anterior teeth. Radiographic examination incidentally revealed root bifurcation in primary maxillary central incisors bilaterally. This represents a rare finding. There are few cases that have reported birooted permanent incisors, but there is no case reported till date with birooted primary incisors. This report discusses the findings in the context of the available literature. The possible etiology and the need for careful assessment prior to root canal therapy are highlighted.
Mochizuki K, Ohtawa Y, Kubo S, Machida Y, Yakushiji M. Bifurcation, birooted primary canines: a case report. Int J Paediatr Dent 2001 Sep;11(5):380-385.
Bryant RH, Bowers DF. Four birooted primary canines: report of case. ASDC J Dent Child 1982 Nov-Dec;49(6):441-442.
De Deus QD. Frequency, location and direction of the lateral, secondary and accessory canals. J Endod 1975 Nov;1(11): 361-366.
Ingle, JI. Endodontic. 3th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Saunders; 1985.
Vertucci FJ. Root canal anatomy of the human permanent teeth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1984 Nov;58(5): 589-599.
DeGrood ME, Cunningham CJ. Mandibular molar with 5 canals: report of case. J Endod 1997 Jan;23(1):60-62.
de Almeida-Gomes F, de Sousa BC, dos Santos RA. Unusual anatomy of mandibular premolars. Aust Endod J 2006 Apr;32(1):43-45.
de Almeida-Gomes F, Maniglia-Ferreira C, dos Santos RA. Two palatal root canals in a maxillary second molar. Endod J 2007 Aug;33(2):82-83.
Sheikh-Nezami M, Mokhber N. Endodontic treatment of a maxillary central incisor with three root canals. J Oral Sci 2007 Sep;49(3):245-247.
Sponchiado EC Jr, Ismail HA, Braga MR, de Carvalho FK, Simões CA. Maxillary central incisor with two root canals: a case report. J. Endod 2006 Oct;32(10):1002-1004.
Kelly JR. Birooted primary canines. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1978;46:872.
Eversole, LR. Dental defects. In: Clinical outline of oral pathology: diagnosis and treatment. 3rd ed. Philadelphia (PA): Lea & Febiger; 1992. p. 341-375.
Bhaskar, SN. Orban's oral histology and embryology. 8th ed. St. Louis (MO): Mosby; 1976. p. 37-43.
Neville, BW.; Damm, DD.; Allen, CM.; Bouquot, JE. Oral and maxillofacial pathology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia (PA): W.B. Saunders; 2002. p. 88.
Hosomi T, Yoshikawa M, Yaoi M, Sakiyama Y, Toda T. A maxillary central incisor having two root canals geminated with a supernumerary tooth. J Endod 1989 Apr;15(4):161-163.
Hatton JF, Ferrillo PJ Jr. Successful treatment of a two-canalled maxillary lateral incisor. J Endod 1989 May;15(5):216-218.
Gáspár L, Szabó G. Manifestation of the advantages and disadvantages of using the CO2 laser in oral surgery. J Clin Laser Med Surg 1990 Feb;8(1):39-43.
Haytac MC, Ozcelik O. Evaluation of patient perceptions after frenectomy operations: a comparison of carbon dioxide laser and scalpel techniques. J Periodontol 2006 Nov;77(11): 1815-1819.
Garg N, Verma S, Chadha M, Rastogi P. Use of carbon dioxide laser in oral soft tissue procedures. Natl J Maxillofac Surg 2015 Jan-Jun;6(1):84-88.
Aras MH, Goregen M, Gungormus M, Akgul HM. Comparison of diode laser and Er:YAG lasers in the treatment of ankyloglossia. Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Apr;28(2): 173-177.
Takamori K, Nasu D, Seki N, Nishiyama M, Shirakawa T. Application of Er:YAG laser for soft tissue surgery in pediatric dentistry. Jpn J Pediatr Dent 2012 Nov;50(5):393-397.
Amir LH, James JP, Beatty J. Review of tongue-tie release at a tertiary maternity hospital. J Pediatr Child Health 2005 May- Jun;41(5-6):243-245.
Ballard JL, Auer CE, Khoury JC. Ankyloglossia: assessment, incidence, and effect of frenuloplasty on the breast feeding dyad. Pediatrics 2002 Nov;110(5):e63.
Kato J. Application of CO2 laser for oral soft tissue surgery in children. J Jpn Soc Laser Dent 2012;23:91-94.
Messner AH, Lalakea ML. The effect of ankyloglossia on speech in children. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002 Dec;127(6):539-545.
Tachimura T, Hara H, Wada T. Articulation disorders caused by ankyloglossia recurrence following primary lingual frenulectomy during early infancy. Jpn Stomatol Soc 1993;42(4):17-721.
Bortolotti R, Ribeiro ATB, Barros MGL, Spinasse KG. Space maintainers in preventive and interceptive orthodontics. Rev Dent Press Ortodon Ortop Facial 1999;4:25-33.
Kapala, JT. Interceptive orthodontics and management of space problems. In: Braham RL, Morris ME, editors. Textbook of pediatric dentistry. Baltimore (MD): Williams and Wilkins; 1980. p. 32057.
Duran R, Vatansever U, Acuna B, Süt N. Comparison of temporal artery, mid-forehead skin and axillary temperature recordings in preterm infants <1500 g of birthweight. J Paediatr Child Health 2009 Jul-Aug;45(7-8):444-447.
Fortuna EL, Carney MM, Macy M, Stanley RM, Younger JG, Bradin SA. Accuracy of non-contact infrared thermometry versus rectal thermometry in young children evaluated in the emergency department for fever. J Emerg Nurs 2010 Mar;36(2):101-104.
Robinson JL, Jou H, Spady DW. Accuracy of parents in measuring body temperature with a tympanic thermometer. BMC Fam Pract 2005 Jan;6(1):3.
Gensheimer KF. A public health perspective on child care. Pediatrics 1994 Dec;94(6 Pt 2):1116-1118.
Louhiala PJ, Jaakkola N, Ruotsalainen R, Jaakkola JJ. Form of day care and respiratory infections among Finnish children. Am J Public Health 1995 Aug;85(8 Pt 1):1109-1112.
Wagner JR. A clinical and histological case study using resorbable hydroxylapatite for the repair of osseous defects prior to endosseous implant surgery. J Oral Implantol 1989;15: 186-92.
LeGeros RZ. Calcium phosphates in oral biology and medicine. In: Myers HM (Ed). New York: Karger Press 1991;15.
Fang Y, Agrawal DK, Roy DM. Thermal stability of synthetic hydroxylapatite. In: Brown PW, Constantz B (Eds). Hydroxylapatite and Related Materials. CRC Press: Boca Raton, Fla: 1994:269-82.
Brown WE, Eidelman N, Tomazic B. Octacalcium phosphate as a precursor in biomineral formation. Adv Dent Res 1987;1:306-13.
Urist MR, Dowell TA. The newly deposited mineral in cartilage and bone matrix. Clin Orthopaed Rel Res 1967;50:291-308.
Bonar LC, Roufosse AH, Sabine WK, Grynpas MD, Glimcher MJ. X-ray diffraction studies of the crystallinity of bone mineral in newly synthesized and density fractionated bone. Calcif Tissue Int. 1983;35:202-09.
Roberts JE, Bonar LC, Griffin RG, Glimcher MJ. Characterization of very young mineral phases of bone by solid state phosphorus magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction. Calcif Tissue Int 1992;50: 42-48.
Lee DD, Landis WJ, Glimcher MJ. The solid, calcium-phosphate mineral phases in embryonic chick bone characterized by highvoltage electron diffraction. J Bone Min Res 1986;1:425-32.
Roberts WE, Turley PK, Brezniak N, Fielder PJ. Bone physiology and metabolism. Calif Dent Assoc J 1987;15:54-61.
Roberts WE. Bone tissue interface. J Dent Educ 1988;52: 804-09.
Brunski JB. Biomechanical factors affecting the bone-dental implant interface. Clin Mat 1992;10:153-201.
Spivak JM, Ricci JL, Blumenthal NC, Alexander H. A new canine model to evaluate the biological response of intramedullary bone to implant materials and surfaces. J Biomed Mat Res 1990;24:1121-49.
Karande V, Levrant S, Hoxsey R, Rinehart J, Gleicher N. Lysis of intrauterine adhesions using gynecoradiologic techniques. Fertil Steril 1997;68:658-62.
Chen FP, Soong YK, Hui YL. Successful treatment of severe uterine synechiae with transcervical resectoscopy combined with laminaria tent. Hum Reprod 1997;12:943-47.
Protopapas A, Shushan A, Magos A. Myometrial scoring: A new technique for the management of severe Asherman's syndrome. Fertil Steril 1998;69:860-64.
Coccia ME, Becattini C, Bracco GL, Pampaloni F, Bargelli G, Scarselli G. Pressure lavage under ultrasound guidance: A new approach for outpatient treatment of intrauterine adhesions. Fertil Steril 2001;75:601-06.
Coccia ME, Becattini C, Bracco GL, Bargelli G, Scarselli G. Intraoperative ultrasound guidance for operative hysteroscopy: A prospective study. J Reprod Med 2000;45:413-18.
Polishuk WZ, Weinstein D. The Soichet intrauterine device in the treatment of intrauterine adhesions. Acta Eur Fertil 1976;7:215-18.
March CM. Intrauterine adhesions. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 1995;22:491-505.
Amer MI, El Nadim A, Hassanein K. The role of intrauterine balloon after operative hysteroscopy in the prevention of intrauterine adhesion: A prospective controlled study. MEFS J 2005;10:125-29.
Amer MI, Abd-El-Maeboud KH. Amnion graft following hysteroscopic lysis of intrauterine adhesions. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2006;32:559-66.
Burns JW, Skinner K, Colt J, Sheidlin A, Bronson R, Yaacobi Y, Goldberg EP. Prevention of tissue injury and postsurgical adhesions by precoating tissues with hyaluronic acid solutions. J Surg Res 1995;59:644-52.
De Iaco PA, Stefanetti M, Pressato D, Piana S, Dona M, Pavesio A, Bovicelli L. A novel hyaluronan-based gel in laparoscopic adhesion prevention: Preclinical evaluation in an animal model. Fertil Steril 1998;69:318-23.
Tsapanos VS, Stathopoulou LP, Papathanassopoulou VS, Tzingounis VA. The role of Seprafilm bioresorbable membrane in the prevention and therapy of endometrial synechiae. J Biomed Mater Res 2002;63:10-14.
Pace S, Stentella P, Catania R, Palazzetti PL, Frega A. Endoscopic treatment of intrauterine adhesions. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 2003;30:26-28.
Katz Z, Ben-Arie A, Lurie S, Manor M, Insler V. Reproductive outcome following hysteroscopic adhesiolysis in Asherman's syndrome. Int J Fertil Menopausal Stud 1996;41:462-65.
Everett C. Incidence and outcome of bleeding before the 20th week of pregnancy: Prospective study fromgeneral practice. BMJ 1997;315:32-34.
Kumari AS, Haq A, Jayasundaram R, Abdel-Wareth LO, Al Haija SA, Alvarez M. Metformin monotherapy in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome. R & Pro D. Biomed Online 2005;10:100-04.
Crave JC, Fimbel S, Lejeune H, Cugnardey N, Dechaud H, Pugeat M. Effects of diet and metformin administration on sex hormone binding globulin, androgens, and insulin in hirsute and obese women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;80:2057-62.
Pasquali R, Gambineri A, Biscotti D, Vicennati V, Gagliardi L, Colitta D, Fiorini S, Cognigni GE, Filicori M, Morselli-Labate AM. Effect of long-term treatment with metformin added to hypocaloric diet on body composition, fat distribution, and androgen and insulin levels in abdominally obese women with and without the polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:2767-74.
Ehrmann DA, Cavaghan MK, Imperial J, Sturis J, Rosenfield RL, Polonsky KS. Effects of metformin on insulin secretion, insulin action, and ovarian steroidogenesis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:524-30.
De Leo V, la Marca A, Ditto A, Morgante G, Cianci A. Effects of metformin on gonadotropin-induced ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 1999;72:282-85.
Yarali H, Yildiz B, Demirol A, Zeyneloglu HB, Yigit N, Bukulmez O, Koray Z. Co-administration of metformin during rFSH treatment in patients with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovarian syndrome: A prospective randomized trial. Hum Reprod 2002;17:289-94.
Palomba S, Falbo A, Orio F (Jr), Manguso F, Russo T, Tolino A, Colao A, Dale B, Zullo F. A randomized controlled trial evaluating metformin pretreatment and coadministration in nonobese insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome treated with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation plus timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination. Hum Reprod 2005 Jun 15 (Epub ahead of print).
Stadtmauer LA, Toma SK, Riehl RM, Talbert LM. Metformin treatment of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing in vitro fertilization improves outcomes and is associated with modulation of the insulin-like growth factors. Fertil Steril 2001;75:505-09.
Stadtmauer LA, Toma SK, Riehl RM, Talbert LM. Impact of metformin therapy on ovarian stimulation and outcome in ‘coasted’ patients with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing in vitro fertilization. Reprod Biomed Online 2002;5:112-16.
Glueck CJ, Phillips H, Cameron D, Sieve-Smith L, Wang P. Continuing metformin throughout pregnancy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome appears to safely reduce firsttrimester spontaneous abortion: A pilot study. Fertil Steril 2001;75:46-52.
Kocak M, Caliskan E, Simsir C, Haberal A. Metformin therapy improves ovulatory rates, cervical scores, and pregnancy rates in clomiphene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2002;77:101-06.
Cole PA, Robinson CH. Mechanism and inhibition of cytochrome P-450 aromatase. J Med Chem 1990;33:2933-42.
Akhtar M, Njar VC, Wright JN. Mechanistic studies on aromatase and related C-C bond cleaving P-450 enzymes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1993;44:375-87.
Palter SF, Tavares AB, Hourvitz A, Veldhuis JD, Adashi EY. Are estrogens of import to primate/human ovarian folliculogenesis? Endocr Rev 2001;22:389-424.
Weil S, Vendola K, Zhou J, Bondy CA. Androgen and follicle stimulating hormone interactions in primate ovarian follicle development. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:2951-56.
Vendola KA, Zhou J, Adesanya OO, Weil SJ, Bondy CA. Androgens stimulate early stages of follicular growth in the primate ovary. J Clin Invest 1998;101:2622-29.
Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibitors for the treatment of infertility. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2003;12:353-71.
Mitwally MF, Biljan MM, Casper RF. Pregnancy outcome after the use of an aromatase inhibitor for ovarian stimulation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;192:381-86.
Mitwally MFM, Casper RF. The use of aromatase inhibitor for induction of ovulation in cases of clomiphene citrate failure. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2002;14:255-63.
Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Use of an aromatase inhibitor for induction of ovulation in patients with an inadequate response to clomiphene citrate. Fertil Steril 2001;75:305-09.
Sammour A, Bijan MM, Tan SL, Tulandi T. Prospective randomised trial comparing the effects of letrazole (LE) and clomiphene citrate (CC) on follicular development, endometrial thickness and pregnancy rate in patients undergoing superovulation prior to intrauterine insemination (IUI). Fertil Steril 2001;76(Suppl 1):S110.
Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Single-dose administration of an aromatase inhibitor for ovarian stimulation. Fertil Steril 2005;83:229-31.
Fisher SA, Reid RL, Van Vugt DA, Casper RF. A randomized double-blind comparison of the effects of clomiphene citrate and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole on ovulatory function in normal women. Fertil Steril 2002;78:280-85.
Fatemi HM, Kalibianakis E, Tournaye H, Camus M, Van Steirteghem AC, Devroey P. Clomiphene citrate vs letrozole for ovarian stimulation: A pilot study. Reprod Biomed Online 2003;7:543-46.
Hu Y, Cortvrindt R, Smitz J. Effects of aromatase inhibition on in vitro follicle and oocyte development analyzed by early preantral mouse follicle culture. Mol Reprod Dev 2002;61: 549-59.
Shetty G, Krishnamurthy H, Krishnamurthy HN, Bhatnagar S, Moudgal NR. Effect of estrogen deprivation on the reproductive physiology of male and female primates. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1997;61:157-66.
Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibition reduces gonadotrophin dose required for controlled ovarian stimulation in women with unexplained infertility. Hum Reprod 2003;18:1588-97.
Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibition improves ovarian response to follicle-stimulating hormone in poor responders. Fertil Steril 2002;77:776-80.
Goswami SK, Das T, Chattopadhyay R, Sawhney V, Kumar J, Chaudhury K, Chakravarty BN, Kabir SN. A randomized single blind controlled trial of letrozole as a low-cost IVF protocol in women with poor ovarian response: A preliminary report. Hum Reprod 2004;19:2031-35.
Newkirk KM, Chandler HL, Parent AE, et al. Ultraviolet radiation-induced corneal degeneration in 129 mice. Toxicol Pathol 2007;35:819-26.
Pettenati MJ, Sweatt AJ, Lantz P, et al. The human cornea has a high incidence of acquired chromosome abnormalities. Hum Genet 1997;101:26-29.
Snibson GR. Collagen cross-linking: A new treatment paradigm in corneal disease—a review. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2010;38:141-53.
Spoerl E, Raiskup-Wolf F, Kuhlisch E, Pillunat LE. Cigarette smoking is negatively associated with keratoconus. J Refract Surg 2008;24:S737-40.
Rabinowitz YS, Nesburn AB, McDonnell PJ. Videokeratography of the fellow eye in unilateral keratoconus. Ophthalmology 1993;100:181-86.
Goodrich DW, Lee WH. The molecular genetics of retinoblastoma. Cancer Surv 1990;9:529-54.
Moodaley LC, Woodward EG, Liu CS, Buckley RJ. Life expectancy in keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol 1992;76:590-91.
Honein MA, Dawson AL, Petersen EE, Jones AM, Lee EH, Yazdy MM, Ahmad N, Macdonald J, Evert N, Bingham A, et al. Birth defects among fetuses and infants of US women with evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. JAMA 2017 Jan 3;317(1):59-68.
Chervenak FA, Jeanty P, Cantraine F, Chitkara U, Venus I, Berkowitz RL, Hobbins JC. The diagnosis of fetal microcephaly. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984 Jul 1;149(5):512-517.
Papageorghiou AT, Thilaganathan B, Bilardo CM, Ngu A, Malinger G, Herrera M, Salomon LJ, Riley LE, Copel JA. ISUOG Interim Guidance on ultrasound for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: information for healthcare professionals. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Apr;47(4):530-532.
Chibueze EC, Parsons AJ, Lopes KD, Yo T, Swa T, Nagata C, Horita N, Morisaki N, Balogun OO, Dagvadorj A, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound scanning for prenatal microcephaly in the context of Zika virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2017 May 23;7(1):2310.
Cordeiro MT. Zika virus: laboratory diagnosis. In: Zika in focus. Springer International Publishing; 2017. pp. 59-62.
Mlakar J, Korva M, Tul N, Popović M, Poljšak-Prijatelj M, Mraz J, Kolenc M, Resman Rus K, Vesnaver Vipotnik T, Fabjan Vodušek V, et al. Zika virus associated with microcephaly. N Engl J Med 2016 Mar 10;374(10):951-958.
Zare Mehrjardi M, Keshavarz E, Poretti A, Hazin AN. Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection: a review article. Jpn J Radiol 2016 Dec;34(12):765-770.
Oliveira Melo AS, Malinger G, Ximenes R, Szejnfeld PO, Alves Sampaio S, Bispo de Filippis AM. Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Jan;47(1):6-7.
Brasil P, Pereira JP Jr, Moreira ME, Ribeiro Nogueira RM, Damasceno L, Wakimoto M, Rabello RS, Valderramos SG, Halai UA, Salles TS, et al. Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro. N Engl J Med 2016 Dec 15;375(24):2321-2334.