International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 10 , ISSUE 3 ( 2017 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Effect of Resin Infiltration on Artificial Caries: An in vitro Evaluation of Resin Penetration and Microhardness

Deepesh Prajapati, Rashmi Nayak, Deepika Pai, Nagraj Upadhya, Vipin K Bhaskar, Pujan Kamath

Citation Information : Prajapati D, Nayak R, Pai D, Upadhya N, Bhaskar VK, Kamath P. Effect of Resin Infiltration on Artificial Caries: An in vitro Evaluation of Resin Penetration and Microhardness. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017; 10 (3):250-256.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1445

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 00-09-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of resin infiltration on artificial caries lesion by assessing the depth of resin penetration and the change in microhardness of lesion postinfiltration. Materials and methods: Totally 45 human extracted premolars were used to create an artificial demineralized lesion in enamel using demineralizing solution. A total of 15 samples (group I) were infiltrated with resin. The depth of resin penetration was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Other half (n = 30) of samples was equally divided into three subgroups and Vickers hardness number (VHN) values were obtained to measure the surface microhardness as group IIa—before demineralization, IIb—after demineralization, IIc—postresin infiltration. Results: Mean depth of penetration in group I was 516.8 µm. There was statistically significant increase in VHN values of demineralized lesion postresin infiltration (independent Student\'s t-test, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Penetration depth of the resin infiltrant was deep enough to render beneficial effects, while significant increase in microhardness was observed postresin infiltration. Clinical significance: Infiltrant used can be considered as a valid treatment option for noncavitated lesions.


PDF Share
  1. Siegel SC, Von Fraunhofer. A. Dental cutting: the historical development of diamond burs. J Am Dent Assoc 1998 Jun;129(6):740-745.
  2. Kielbassa AM. Current challenges in caries diagnosis. Quintessence Int 2006;37:421.
  3. Qvist, V. Longevity of restorations: the “death spiral”: In: Fejerskov O, Kidd EAM, editors. Dental caries: the disease and its clinical management. Oxford: Blackwell Munksgaard; 2008. p. 444-455.
  4. Yamazaki H, Litman A, Margolis HC. Effect of fluoride on artificial caries lesion progression and repair in human enamel: regulation of mineral deposition and dissolution under in vivo-like conditions. Arch Oral Biol 2007 Feb;52(2):110-120.
  5. Chuenarrom C, Benjakul P, Daosodsai P. Effect of indentation load and time on Knoop and Vicker's microhardness tests for enamel and dentin. Mat Res 2009;12(4):473-476.
  6. Toledano M, Osorio R, Osorio E, Prati C, Carvalho RM. Microhardness of acid-treated and resin infiltrated human dentine. J Dent 2005 Apr;33(4):349-354.
  7. Mueller J, Meyer-Lueckel H, Paris S, Hopfenmuller W, Kielbassa AM. Inhibition of lesion progression by the penetration of resins in vitro: influence of the application procedure. Oper Dent 2006 May-Jun;31(3):338-345.
  8. Meyer-Lueckel H, Paris S. Progression of artificial enamel caries lesions after infiltration with experimental light curing resins. Caries Res 2008 Feb;42(2):117-124.
  9. Paris S, Meyer-Lueckel H, Cölfen H, Kielbassa AM. Penetration coefficients of commercially available and experimental composites intended to infiltrate enamel carious lesions. Dent Mater 2007 Jun;23(6):742-748.
  10. Huang SB, Gao SS, Yu HY. Effects of nano-hydroxyapatite concentration on remineralization of initial enamel lesion in vitro. Biomed Mater 2009 Jun;4(3):034104.
  11. Anaraki SN, Serajzadeh M, Fekrazad R. Effects of laser assisted fluoride therapy with a CO2 laser and Er, Cr:YSGG laser on enamel demineralization. Pediatr Dent 2012 Jul- Aug;34(4):e92-e96.
  12. Meyer-Lueckel H, Paris S, Kielbassa AM. Surface layer erosion of natural caries lesions with phosphoric and hydrochloric acid gels in preparation for resin infiltration. Caries Res 2007 Apr;41(3):223-230.
  13. Meyer-Lueckel H, Paris S, Mueller J, Cölfen H, Kielbassa AM. Influence of the application time on the penetration of different dental adhesives and a fissure sealant into artificial subsurface lesions in bovine enamel. Dent Mater 2006 Jan;22(1):22-28.
  14. Robinson C, Brookes SJ, Kirkham J, Wood SR, Shore RC. In vitro studies of the penetration of adhesive resins into artificial caries-like lesions. Caries Res 2001 Mar-Apr;35(2): 136-141.
  15. Hubbard MJ. Correlated light and scanning electron microscopy of artificial caries lessions. J Dent Res 1982 Jan;61(1): 14-19.
  16. Saviero V, Paris S, Séllos M, Meyer-Lückel H. Effects of application time on infiltrant caries penetration ex vivo. J Dent Res 2010;89(Spec Iss A):2521
  17. Son JH, Hur B, Kim HC, Park JK. Management of white spots: resin infiltration technique and microabrasion. J Korean Acad Cons Dent 2011 Jan;36(1):66-71.
  18. Xu HH, Smith DT, Jahanmir S, Romberg E, Kelly JR, Thompson VP, Rekow DE. Indentation damage and mechanical properties of human enamel and dentin. J Dent Res 1998 Mar;77(3):472-480.
  19. Fusayama T, Okuse K, Hosoda H. Relationship between hardness, discoloration, and microbial invasion in carious dentin. J Dent Res 1966 Jul-Aug;45(4):1033-1046.
  20. Palmara, JE.; Tyas, M.; Burrow, MF. Resin infiltrated artificial caries lesions examined by polarized microscopy and micro hardness tests. 2010. Hamburg: DMG; 2010.
  21. Yoldas O, Akova T, Uysal H. Influence of different indentation load and dwell time on Knoop microhardness tests for composite materials. Polym Test 2004 May;23(3):343-346.
  22. Torres CR, Rosa PC, Ferreira NS, Borges AB. Effect of caries infiltration technique and fluoride therapy on microhardness of enamel carious lesions. Oper Dent 2012 Jul-Aug;37(4): 363-369.
  23. Kim JH, Son HH, Chang J. Color and hardness changes in artificial white spot lesions after resin infilteration, restorative dentistry and endodontics. Restor Dent Endod 2012 May;37(2):90-95.
  24. Paris S, Meyer-Leuckel H. Inhibition of caries progression by resin infiltration in situ. Caries Res 2010 Jan;44(1):47-54.
  25. Kaur H, Jain S, Kaur A. Comparative evaluation of the antiplaque effectiveness of green tea catechin mouthwash with chlorhexidinegluconate. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2014 Mar- Apr;18(2):178-182.
  26. Ferrazzano GF, Roberto L, Amato I, Cantile T, Sangianantoni G, Ingenito A. Antimicrobial properties of green tea extract against cariogenic microflora: an in vivo study. J Med Food 2011 Sep;14(9):907-911.
  27. Taylor PW, Hamilton-Miller JM, Stapleton PD. Antimicrobial properties of green tea catechins. Food Sci Technol Bull 2005;2:71-81.
  28. Evensen NA, Braun PC. The effects of tea polyphenols on Candida albicans: inhibition of biofilm formation and proteasome inactivation. Can J Microbiol 2009 Sep;55(9):1033-1039.
  29. Ross ZM, O'Gara EA, Hill DJ, Sleightholme HV, Maslin DJ. Antimicrobial properties of garlic oil against human enteric bacteria: evaluation of methodologies and comparisons with garlic oil sulfides and garlic powder. Appl Environ Microbiol 2001 Jan;67(1):475-480.
  30. Prabhakar AR, Vipin A, Basappa N. Effect of curry leaves, garlic and tea tree oil on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli in children: a clinical and microbiological study. Pesq Bras Odontopediatria Clin Integr 2009 Sep-Dec;9(3):259-263.
  31. Whittaker JM, James RA, Lozada J, Cordova C, GaRey DJ. Histological response and clinical evaluation of heterograft and allograft materials in the elevation of the maxillary sinus for the preparation of endosteal dental implants sites. Simultaneous sinus elevation and root form implantation: An eight-month autopsy report. J Oral Implantol 1989;15(2):141-44.
  32. Linkow LI, Wagner JR. Management of implant-related problems and infections. J Oral Implantol 1993;19(4): 321-35.
  33. Vassos DM, Petrik PK. The sinus lift procedure: An alternative to the maxillary subperiosteal implant. Pract Periodont Aesth Dent 1992;4:14-19.
  34. Judy KWM. Oral implantology case reports. NYS Dent J 1986;52:24-26.
  35. Wagner JR. A 3½-year clinical evaluation of resorbable hydroxylapatite OsteoGen (HA Resorb) used for sinus lift augmentations in conjunction with the insertion of endosseous implants. J Oral Implantol. 1991;17:152-64.
  36. Wagner JR. A clinical and histological case study using resorbable hydroxylapatite for the repair of osseous defects prior to endosseous implant surgery. J Oral Implantol 1989;15: 186-92.
  37. LeGeros RZ. Calcium phosphates in oral biology and medicine. In: Myers HM (Ed). New York: Karger Press 1991;15.
  38. Fang Y, Agrawal DK, Roy DM. Thermal stability of synthetic hydroxylapatite. In: Brown PW, Constantz B (Eds). Hydroxylapatite and Related Materials. CRC Press: Boca Raton, Fla: 1994:269-82.
  39. Brown WE, Eidelman N, Tomazic B. Octacalcium phosphate as a precursor in biomineral formation. Adv Dent Res 1987;1:306-13.
  40. Urist MR, Dowell TA. The newly deposited mineral in cartilage and bone matrix. Clin Orthopaed Rel Res 1967;50:291-308.
  41. Bonar LC, Roufosse AH, Sabine WK, Grynpas MD, Glimcher MJ. X-ray diffraction studies of the crystallinity of bone mineral in newly synthesized and density fractionated bone. Calcif Tissue Int. 1983;35:202-09.
  42. Roberts JE, Bonar LC, Griffin RG, Glimcher MJ. Characterization of very young mineral phases of bone by solid state phosphorus magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction. Calcif Tissue Int 1992;50: 42-48.
  43. Lee DD, Landis WJ, Glimcher MJ. The solid, calcium-phosphate mineral phases in embryonic chick bone characterized by highvoltage electron diffraction. J Bone Min Res 1986;1:425-32.
  44. Roberts WE, Turley PK, Brezniak N, Fielder PJ. Bone physiology and metabolism. Calif Dent Assoc J 1987;15:54-61.
  45. Roberts WE. Bone tissue interface. J Dent Educ 1988;52: 804-09.
  46. Brunski JB. Biomechanical factors affecting the bone-dental implant interface. Clin Mat 1992;10:153-201.
  47. Spivak JM, Ricci JL, Blumenthal NC, Alexander H. A new canine model to evaluate the biological response of intramedullary bone to implant materials and surfaces. J Biomed Mat Res 1990;24:1121-49.
  48. Karande V, Levrant S, Hoxsey R, Rinehart J, Gleicher N. Lysis of intrauterine adhesions using gynecoradiologic techniques. Fertil Steril 1997;68:658-62.
  49. Chen FP, Soong YK, Hui YL. Successful treatment of severe uterine synechiae with transcervical resectoscopy combined with laminaria tent. Hum Reprod 1997;12:943-47.
  50. McComb PF, Wagner BL. Simplified therapy for Asherman's syndrome. Fertil Steril 1997;68:1047-50.
  51. Protopapas A, Shushan A, Magos A. Myometrial scoring: A new technique for the management of severe Asherman's syndrome. Fertil Steril 1998;69:860-64.
  52. Coccia ME, Becattini C, Bracco GL, Pampaloni F, Bargelli G, Scarselli G. Pressure lavage under ultrasound guidance: A new approach for outpatient treatment of intrauterine adhesions. Fertil Steril 2001;75:601-06.
  53. Coccia ME, Becattini C, Bracco GL, Bargelli G, Scarselli G. Intraoperative ultrasound guidance for operative hysteroscopy: A prospective study. J Reprod Med 2000;45:413-18.
  54. Polishuk WZ, Weinstein D. The Soichet intrauterine device in the treatment of intrauterine adhesions. Acta Eur Fertil 1976;7:215-18.
  55. March CM. Intrauterine adhesions. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 1995;22:491-505.
  56. Amer MI, El Nadim A, Hassanein K. The role of intrauterine balloon after operative hysteroscopy in the prevention of intrauterine adhesion: A prospective controlled study. MEFS J 2005;10:125-29.
  57. Amer MI, Abd-El-Maeboud KH. Amnion graft following hysteroscopic lysis of intrauterine adhesions. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2006;32:559-66.
  58. Burns JW, Skinner K, Colt J, Sheidlin A, Bronson R, Yaacobi Y, Goldberg EP. Prevention of tissue injury and postsurgical adhesions by precoating tissues with hyaluronic acid solutions. J Surg Res 1995;59:644-52.
  59. De Iaco PA, Stefanetti M, Pressato D, Piana S, Dona M, Pavesio A, Bovicelli L. A novel hyaluronan-based gel in laparoscopic adhesion prevention: Preclinical evaluation in an animal model. Fertil Steril 1998;69:318-23.
  60. Tsapanos VS, Stathopoulou LP, Papathanassopoulou VS, Tzingounis VA. The role of Seprafilm bioresorbable membrane in the prevention and therapy of endometrial synechiae. J Biomed Mater Res 2002;63:10-14.
  61. Pace S, Stentella P, Catania R, Palazzetti PL, Frega A. Endoscopic treatment of intrauterine adhesions. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 2003;30:26-28.
  62. Katz Z, Ben-Arie A, Lurie S, Manor M, Insler V. Reproductive outcome following hysteroscopic adhesiolysis in Asherman's syndrome. Int J Fertil Menopausal Stud 1996;41:462-65.
  63. Everett C. Incidence and outcome of bleeding before the 20th week of pregnancy: Prospective study fromgeneral practice. BMJ 1997;315:32-34.
  64. Kumari AS, Haq A, Jayasundaram R, Abdel-Wareth LO, Al Haija SA, Alvarez M. Metformin monotherapy in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome. R & Pro D. Biomed Online 2005;10:100-04.
  65. Crave JC, Fimbel S, Lejeune H, Cugnardey N, Dechaud H, Pugeat M. Effects of diet and metformin administration on sex hormone binding globulin, androgens, and insulin in hirsute and obese women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;80:2057-62.
  66. Pasquali R, Gambineri A, Biscotti D, Vicennati V, Gagliardi L, Colitta D, Fiorini S, Cognigni GE, Filicori M, Morselli-Labate AM. Effect of long-term treatment with metformin added to hypocaloric diet on body composition, fat distribution, and androgen and insulin levels in abdominally obese women with and without the polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:2767-74.
  67. Ehrmann DA, Cavaghan MK, Imperial J, Sturis J, Rosenfield RL, Polonsky KS. Effects of metformin on insulin secretion, insulin action, and ovarian steroidogenesis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:524-30.
  68. De Leo V, la Marca A, Ditto A, Morgante G, Cianci A. Effects of metformin on gonadotropin-induced ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 1999;72:282-85.
  69. Yarali H, Yildiz B, Demirol A, Zeyneloglu HB, Yigit N, Bukulmez O, Koray Z. Co-administration of metformin during rFSH treatment in patients with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovarian syndrome: A prospective randomized trial. Hum Reprod 2002;17:289-94.
  70. Palomba S, Falbo A, Orio F (Jr), Manguso F, Russo T, Tolino A, Colao A, Dale B, Zullo F. A randomized controlled trial evaluating metformin pretreatment and coadministration in nonobese insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome treated with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation plus timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination. Hum Reprod 2005 Jun 15 (Epub ahead of print).
  71. Stadtmauer LA, Toma SK, Riehl RM, Talbert LM. Metformin treatment of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing in vitro fertilization improves outcomes and is associated with modulation of the insulin-like growth factors. Fertil Steril 2001;75:505-09.
  72. Stadtmauer LA, Toma SK, Riehl RM, Talbert LM. Impact of metformin therapy on ovarian stimulation and outcome in ‘coasted’ patients with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing in vitro fertilization. Reprod Biomed Online 2002;5:112-16.
  73. Glueck CJ, Phillips H, Cameron D, Sieve-Smith L, Wang P. Continuing metformin throughout pregnancy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome appears to safely reduce firsttrimester spontaneous abortion: A pilot study. Fertil Steril 2001;75:46-52.
  74. Kocak M, Caliskan E, Simsir C, Haberal A. Metformin therapy improves ovulatory rates, cervical scores, and pregnancy rates in clomiphene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2002;77:101-06.
  75. Cole PA, Robinson CH. Mechanism and inhibition of cytochrome P-450 aromatase. J Med Chem 1990;33:2933-42.
  76. Akhtar M, Njar VC, Wright JN. Mechanistic studies on aromatase and related C-C bond cleaving P-450 enzymes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1993;44:375-87.
  77. Palter SF, Tavares AB, Hourvitz A, Veldhuis JD, Adashi EY. Are estrogens of import to primate/human ovarian folliculogenesis? Endocr Rev 2001;22:389-424.
  78. Weil S, Vendola K, Zhou J, Bondy CA. Androgen and follicle stimulating hormone interactions in primate ovarian follicle development. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:2951-56.
  79. Vendola KA, Zhou J, Adesanya OO, Weil SJ, Bondy CA. Androgens stimulate early stages of follicular growth in the primate ovary. J Clin Invest 1998;101:2622-29.
  80. Giudice LC. Insulin-like growth factors and ovarian follicular development. Endocr Rev 1992;13:641-69.
  81. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibitors for the treatment of infertility. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2003;12:353-71.
  82. Mitwally MF, Biljan MM, Casper RF. Pregnancy outcome after the use of an aromatase inhibitor for ovarian stimulation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;192:381-86.
  83. Mitwally MFM, Casper RF. The use of aromatase inhibitor for induction of ovulation in cases of clomiphene citrate failure. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2002;14:255-63.
  84. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Use of an aromatase inhibitor for induction of ovulation in patients with an inadequate response to clomiphene citrate. Fertil Steril 2001;75:305-09.
  85. Sammour A, Bijan MM, Tan SL, Tulandi T. Prospective randomised trial comparing the effects of letrazole (LE) and clomiphene citrate (CC) on follicular development, endometrial thickness and pregnancy rate in patients undergoing superovulation prior to intrauterine insemination (IUI). Fertil Steril 2001;76(Suppl 1):S110.
  86. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Single-dose administration of an aromatase inhibitor for ovarian stimulation. Fertil Steril 2005;83:229-31.
  87. Fisher SA, Reid RL, Van Vugt DA, Casper RF. A randomized double-blind comparison of the effects of clomiphene citrate and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole on ovulatory function in normal women. Fertil Steril 2002;78:280-85.
  88. Fatemi HM, Kalibianakis E, Tournaye H, Camus M, Van Steirteghem AC, Devroey P. Clomiphene citrate vs letrozole for ovarian stimulation: A pilot study. Reprod Biomed Online 2003;7:543-46.
  89. Hu Y, Cortvrindt R, Smitz J. Effects of aromatase inhibition on in vitro follicle and oocyte development analyzed by early preantral mouse follicle culture. Mol Reprod Dev 2002;61: 549-59.
  90. Shetty G, Krishnamurthy H, Krishnamurthy HN, Bhatnagar S, Moudgal NR. Effect of estrogen deprivation on the reproductive physiology of male and female primates. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1997;61:157-66.
  91. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibition reduces gonadotrophin dose required for controlled ovarian stimulation in women with unexplained infertility. Hum Reprod 2003;18:1588-97.
  92. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibition improves ovarian response to follicle-stimulating hormone in poor responders. Fertil Steril 2002;77:776-80.
  93. Goswami SK, Das T, Chattopadhyay R, Sawhney V, Kumar J, Chaudhury K, Chakravarty BN, Kabir SN. A randomized single blind controlled trial of letrozole as a low-cost IVF protocol in women with poor ovarian response: A preliminary report. Hum Reprod 2004;19:2031-35.
  94. Newkirk KM, Chandler HL, Parent AE, et al. Ultraviolet radiation-induced corneal degeneration in 129 mice. Toxicol Pathol 2007;35:819-26.
  95. Pettenati MJ, Sweatt AJ, Lantz P, et al. The human cornea has a high incidence of acquired chromosome abnormalities. Hum Genet 1997;101:26-29.
  96. Snibson GR. Collagen cross-linking: A new treatment paradigm in corneal disease—a review. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2010;38:141-53.
  97. Spoerl E, Raiskup-Wolf F, Kuhlisch E, Pillunat LE. Cigarette smoking is negatively associated with keratoconus. J Refract Surg 2008;24:S737-40.
  98. Rabinowitz YS, Nesburn AB, McDonnell PJ. Videokeratography of the fellow eye in unilateral keratoconus. Ophthalmology 1993;100:181-86.
  99. Goodrich DW, Lee WH. The molecular genetics of retinoblastoma. Cancer Surv 1990;9:529-54.
  100. Moodaley LC, Woodward EG, Liu CS, Buckley RJ. Life expectancy in keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol 1992;76:590-91.
  101. Honein MA, Dawson AL, Petersen EE, Jones AM, Lee EH, Yazdy MM, Ahmad N, Macdonald J, Evert N, Bingham A, et al. Birth defects among fetuses and infants of US women with evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. JAMA 2017 Jan 3;317(1):59-68.
  102. Chervenak FA, Jeanty P, Cantraine F, Chitkara U, Venus I, Berkowitz RL, Hobbins JC. The diagnosis of fetal microcephaly. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984 Jul 1;149(5):512-517.
  103. Papageorghiou AT, Thilaganathan B, Bilardo CM, Ngu A, Malinger G, Herrera M, Salomon LJ, Riley LE, Copel JA. ISUOG Interim Guidance on ultrasound for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: information for healthcare professionals. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Apr;47(4):530-532.
  104. Chibueze EC, Parsons AJ, Lopes KD, Yo T, Swa T, Nagata C, Horita N, Morisaki N, Balogun OO, Dagvadorj A, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound scanning for prenatal microcephaly in the context of Zika virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2017 May 23;7(1):2310.
  105. Cordeiro MT. Zika virus: laboratory diagnosis. In: Zika in focus. Springer International Publishing; 2017. pp. 59-62.
  106. Mlakar J, Korva M, Tul N, Popović M, Poljšak-Prijatelj M, Mraz J, Kolenc M, Resman Rus K, Vesnaver Vipotnik T, Fabjan Vodušek V, et al. Zika virus associated with microcephaly. N Engl J Med 2016 Mar 10;374(10):951-958.
  107. Zare Mehrjardi M, Keshavarz E, Poretti A, Hazin AN. Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection: a review article. Jpn J Radiol 2016 Dec;34(12):765-770.
  108. Oliveira Melo AS, Malinger G, Ximenes R, Szejnfeld PO, Alves Sampaio S, Bispo de Filippis AM. Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Jan;47(1):6-7.
  109. Araujo AQ, Silva MT, Araujo AP. Zika virus-associated neurological disorders: a review. Brain 2016;139(8):2122-2130.
  110. Brasil P, Pereira JP Jr, Moreira ME, Ribeiro Nogueira RM, Damasceno L, Wakimoto M, Rabello RS, Valderramos SG, Halai UA, Salles TS, et al. Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro. N Engl J Med 2016 Dec 15;375(24):2321-2334.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.