International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

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VOLUME 10 , ISSUE 2 ( April-June, 2017 ) > List of Articles


Antibacterial Inhibitory Effects of Punica Granatum Gel on Cariogenic Bacteria: An in vitro Study

Grazielle Millo, Apa Juntavee, Ariya Ratanathongkam, Natsajee Nualkaew, Peerapattana, Jomjai, Supaporn Chatchiwiwattana

Citation Information : Millo G, Juntavee A, Ratanathongkam A, Nualkaew N, Jomjai P, Chatchiwiwattana S. Antibacterial Inhibitory Effects of Punica Granatum Gel on Cariogenic Bacteria: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017; 10 (2):152-157.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1426

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-12-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; The Author(s).



This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial effects of the formulated Punica granatum (PG) gel against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Lactobacillus casei.

Materials and methods

The PG extract was dissolved in water at 500 mg/mL. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for identification and quantification of chemical marker punicalagin. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill assay (TKA) were investigated. Antibacterial activities of the formulated PG gel, 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel and blank gel were tested by measuring the zones of inhibition through agar well diffusion method.


The HPLC results showed presence of punicalagin at 2023.58 ± 25.29 μg/mL in the aqueous PG extract and at 0.234% (w/w) in the formulated PG gel. The MBC for S. mutans, S. Sanguinis, and L. casei were 250, 125, and 500 mg/mL respectively. The TKA of 500 mg/mL aqueous PG extract showed total inhibition of S. mutans, S. Sanguinis, and L. casei at 6, 1, and 24 hours contact time respectively. Agar well diffusion revealed that for S. mutans, CHX gel > PG gel > blank gel; for S. sanguinis, CHX gel = PG gel > blank gel; for L. casei, CHX gel > PG gel = blank gel. Comparison of the PG gel potency showed that S. sanguinis = S. mutans > L. casei.


The PG gel equivalent to 0.234% punicalagin (w/w) inhibited S. mutans and S. sanguinis but not L. casei within 24 hours incubation period and has the potential to be used for caries prevention.

How to cite this article

Millo G, Juntavee A, Ratanathongkam A, Nualkaew N, Peerapattana J, Chatchiwiwattana S. Antibacterial Inhibitory Effects of Punica Granatum Gel on Cariogenic Bacteria: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(2):152-157.

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